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1.
Axonal regeneration in the lesioned mammalian central nervous system is abortive, and this causes permanent disabilities in individuals with spinal cord injuries. In adult rats, olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) transplants successfully led to functional and structural recovery after complete spinal cord transection. From 3 to 7 months post surgery, all OEG-transplanted animals recovered locomotor functions and sensorimotor reflexes. They presented voluntary hindlimb movements, they supported their body weight, and their hindlimbs responded to light skin contact and proprioceptive stimuli. In addition, relevant motor axons (corticospinal, raphespinal, and coeruleospinal) regenerated for long distances within caudal cord stumps. Therefore, OEG transplantation provides a useful repair strategy in adult mammals with traumatic spinal cord injuries. Our results with these cells could lead to new therapies for the treatment of spinal cord lesions in humans.  相似文献
2.
3.
A family of cloning vectors derived from plasmid pACYC184 and, therefore, compatible with pBR322 and its derivatives (especially the pUC family of vectors), is described. They all contain a multiple cloning site (MCS) and the lacZ alpha reporter gene for easy cloning. They have been grouped in three sets: (i) six of the vectors contain a chloramphenicol-resistance (CmR)-encoding gene and each a different MCS with 16 unique restriction sites overall; (ii) another six vectors contain a kanamycin-resistance (KmR)-encoding gene and the same six MCS; and (iii) two CmR vectors that contain the SP6 and T7 promoters flanking the MCS and lacZ alpha reporter gene of pUC18/19.  相似文献
4.
Nitric oxide is required for root organogenesis   总被引:70,自引:0,他引:70  
5.
Nitric oxide and abscisic acid cross talk in guard cells   总被引:63,自引:0,他引:63  
6.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a freely diffusible, gaseous free radical and an important signaling molecule in animals. In plants, NO influences aspects of growth and development, and can affect plant responses to stress. In some cases, the effects of NO are the result of its interaction with reactive oxygen species (ROS). These interactions can be cytotoxic or protective. Because gibberellin (GA)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Himalaya) aleurone layers is mediated by ROS, we examined the effects of NO donors on PCD and ROS-metabolizing enzymes in this system. NO donors delay PCD in layers treated with GA, but do not inhibit metabolism in general, or the GA-induced synthesis and secretion of alpha-amylase. alpha-Amylase secretion is stimulated slightly by NO donors. The effects of NO donors are specific for NO, because they can be blocked completely by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide. The antioxidant butylated hydroxy toluene also slowed PCD, and these data support our hypothesis that NO is a protective antioxidant in aleurone cells. The amounts of CAT and SOD, two enzymes that metabolize ROS, are greatly reduced in aleurone layers treated with GA. Treatment with GA in the presence of NO donors delays the loss of CAT and SOD. We speculate that NO may be an endogenous modulator of PCD in barley aleurone cells.  相似文献
7.
A new series of vectors, pSU2716, pSU2717, pSU2718, and pSU2719, has been constructed. The plasmids contain (i) the P15A replicon, (ii) the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT)-coding gene from Tn9, and (iii) the HaeII fragment which carries the multiple cloning site and the lacZ alpha reporter gene of pUC8, pUC9, pUC18 and pUC19, respectively. These vectors allow rapid and simple transfer of inserts from pUC plasmids, have an intermediate copy number (which allows regulated expression from the lac promoter), and are compatible with ColE1-derived vectors (and, therefore, can be used in studies requiring the joint expression of two genes, for example, in genetic complementation analysis). Furthermore, the accumulation of CAT instead of beta-lactamase, allows an easy visualization in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of proteins of 28-35 kDa, which can otherwise be obscured by the beta-lactamase.  相似文献
8.
A Bernad  L Blanco  J M Lázaro  G Martín  M Salas 《Cell》1989,59(1):219-228
The 3'----5' exonuclease active site of E. coli DNA polymerase I is predicted to be conserved for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerases based on amino acid sequence homology. Three amino acid regions containing the critical residues in the E. coli DNA polymerase I involved in metal binding, single-stranded DNA binding, and catalysis of the exonuclease reaction are located in the amino-terminal half and in the same linear arrangement in several prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerases. Site-directed mutagenesis at the predicted exonuclease active site of the phi 29 DNA polymerase, a model enzyme for prokaryotic and eukaryotic alpha-like DNA polymerases, specifically inactivated the 3'----5' exonuclease activity of the enzyme. These results reflect a high evolutionary conservation of this catalytic domain. Based on structural and functional data, a modular organization of enzymatic activities in prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerases is also proposed.  相似文献
9.
Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion   总被引:48,自引:0,他引:48  
The primary hypothesis for the astonishing success of many exotics as community invaders relative to their importance in their native communities is that they have escaped the natural enemies that control their population growth – the `natural enemies hypothesis'. However, the frequent failure of introduced biocontrols, weak consumer effects on the growth and reproduction of some invaders, and the lack of consistent strong top-down regulation in many natural ecological systems indicate that other mechanisms must be involved in the success of some exotic plants. One mechanism may be the release by the invader of chemical compounds that have harmful effects on the members of the recipient plant community (i.e., allelopathy). Here, we provide an abbreviated compilation of evidence for allelopathy in general, present a detailed case study for Centaurea diffusa, an invasive Eurasian forb in western North America, and review general evidence for allelopathic effects of invasive plants in native communities. The primary rationale for considering allelopathy as a mechanism for the success of invaders is based on two premises. First, invaders often establish virtual monocultures where diverse communities once flourished, a phenomenon unusual in natural communities. Second, allelopathy may be more important in recipient than in origin communities because the former are more likely to be naïve to the chemicals possessed by newly arrived species. Indeed, results from experiments on C. diffusa suggest that this invader produces chemicals that long-term and familiar Eurasian neighbors have adapted to, but that C. diffusa's new North American neighbors have not. A large number of early studies demonstrated strong potential allelopathic effects of exotic invasive plants; however, most of this work rests on controversial methodology. Nevertheless, during the last 15 years, methodological approaches have improved. Allelopathic effects have been tested on native species, allelochemicals have been tested in varying resource conditions, models have been used to estimate comparisons of resource and allelopathic effects, and experimental techniques have been used to ameliorate chemical effects. We do not recommend allelopathy as a `unifying theory' for plant interactions, nor do we espouse the view that allelopathy is the dominant way that plants interact, but we argue that non-resource mechanisms should be returned to the discussion table as a potential mechanism for explaining the remarkable success of some invasive species. Ecologists should consider the possibility that resource and non-resource mechanisms may work simultaneously, but vary in their relative importance depending on the ecological context in which they are studied. One such context might be exotic plant invasion.  相似文献
10.
Ridente Y  Aubard J  Bolard J 《FEBS letters》1999,445(2-3):283-286
A protein band of approximately 166 kDa was detected in the soluble fraction of root tips and young leaves of maize seedlings, based on Western blot analysis using antibodies raised against mouse macrophage nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and rabbit brain NOS. NOS activity was present in these soluble fractions, as determined by L-[U-14C]citrulline synthesis from L[U-14]arginine. Immunofluorescence showed that the maize NOS protein is present in the cytosol of cells in the division zone and is translocated into the nucleus in cells in the elongation zone of maize root tips. These results indicate the existence of a NOS enzyme in maize tissues, with the localization of this protein depending on the phase of cell growth.  相似文献
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