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1.
The hallmarks of cancer   总被引:440,自引:0,他引:440  
Hanahan D  Weinberg RA 《Cell》2000,100(1):57-70
2.
With its theoretical basis firmly established in molecular evolutionary and population genetics, the comparative DNA and protein sequence analysis plays a central role in reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and multigene families, estimating rates of molecular evolution, and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and genomes. The scope of these investigations has now expanded greatly owing to the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques and novel statistical and computational methods. These methods require easy-to-use computer programs. One such effort has been to produce Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, with its focus on facilitating the exploration and analysis of the DNA and protein sequence variation from an evolutionary perspective. Currently in its third major release, MEGA3 contains facilities for automatic and manual sequence alignment, web-based mining of databases, inference of the phylogenetic trees, estimation of evolutionary distances and testing evolutionary hypotheses. This paper provides an overview of the statistical methods, computational tools, and visual exploration modules for data input and the results obtainable in MEGA.  相似文献
3.
4.
MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function   总被引:397,自引:0,他引:397  
Bartel DP 《Cell》2004,116(2):281-297
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous approximately 22 nt RNAs that can play important regulatory roles in animals and plants by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Although they escaped notice until relatively recently, miRNAs comprise one of the more abundant classes of gene regulatory molecules in multicellular organisms and likely influence the output of many protein-coding genes.  相似文献
5.
Multi-organ, multi-lineage engraftment by a single bone marrow-derived stem cell   总被引:244,自引:0,他引:244  
Purification of rare hematopoietic stem cell(s) (HSC) to homogeneity is required to study their self-renewal, differentiation, phenotype, and homing. Long-term repopulation (LTR) of irradiated hosts and serial transplantation to secondary hosts represent the gold standard for demonstrating self-renewal and differentiation, the defining properties of HSC. We show that rare cells that home to bone marrow can LTR primary and secondary recipients. During the homing, CD34 and SCA-1 expression increases uniquely on cells that home to marrow. These adult bone marrow cells have tremendous differentiative capacity as they can also differentiate into epithelial cells of the liver, lung, GI tract, and skin. This finding may contribute to clinical treatment of genetic disease or tissue repair.  相似文献
6.
Left ventricular remodeling is a major cause of progressive heart failure and death after myocardial infarction. Although neoangiogenesis within the infarcted tissue is an integral component of the remodeling process, the capillary network is unable to support the greater demands of the hypertrophied myocardium, resulting in progressive loss of viable tissue, infarct extension and fibrous replacement. Here we show that bone marrow from adult humans contains endothelial precursors with phenotypic and functional characteristics of embryonic hemangioblasts, and that these can be used to directly induce new blood vessel formation in the infarct-bed (vasculogenesis) and proliferation of preexisting vasculature (angiogenesis) after experimental myocardial infarction. The neoangiogenesis resulted in decreased apoptosis of hypertrophied myocytes in the peri-infarct region, long-term salvage and survival of viable myocardium, reduction in collagen deposition and sustained improvement in cardiac function. The use of cytokine-mobilized autologous human bone-marrow-derived angioblasts for revascularization of infarcted myocardium (alone or in conjunction with currently used therapies) has the potential to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality associated with left ventricular remodeling.  相似文献
7.
Induction of tumor lymphangiogenesis by VEGF-C promotes breast cancer metastasis   总被引:216,自引:0,他引:216  
Metastasis of breast cancer occurs primarily through the lymphatic system, and the extent of lymph node involvement is a key prognostic factor for the disease. Whereas the significance of angiogenesis for tumor progression has been well documented, the ability of tumor cells to induce the growth of lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis) and the presence of intratumoral lymphatic vessels have been controversial. Using a novel marker for lymphatic endothelium, LYVE-1, we demonstrate here the occurrence of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis within human breast cancers after orthotopic transplantation onto nude mice. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C overexpression in breast cancer cells potently increased intratumoral lymphangiogenesis, resulting in significantly enhanced metastasis to regional lymph nodes and to lungs. The degree of tumor lymphangiogenesis was highly correlated with the extent of lymph node and lung metastases. These results establish the occurrence and biological significance of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer and identify VEGF-C as a molecular link between tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis.  相似文献
8.
Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells   总被引:209,自引:0,他引:209       下载免费PDF全文
Much of the work conducted on adult stem cells has focused on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) found within the bone marrow stroma. Adipose tissue, like bone marrow, is derived from the embryonic mesenchyme and contains a stroma that is easily isolated. Preliminary studies have recently identified a putative stem cell population within the adipose stromal compartment. This cell population, termed processed lipoaspirate (PLA) cells, can be isolated from human lipoaspirates and, like MSCs, differentiate toward the osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. To confirm whether adipose tissue contains stem cells, the PLA population and multiple clonal isolates were analyzed using several molecular and biochemical approaches. PLA cells expressed multiple CD marker antigens similar to those observed on MSCs. Mesodermal lineage induction of PLA cells and clones resulted in the expression of multiple lineage-specific genes and proteins. Furthermore, biochemical analysis also confirmed lineage-specific activity. In addition to mesodermal capacity, PLA cells and clones differentiated into putative neurogenic cells, exhibiting a neuronal-like morphology and expressing several proteins consistent with the neuronal phenotype. Finally, PLA cells exhibited unique characteristics distinct from those seen in MSCs, including differences in CD marker profile and gene expression.  相似文献
9.
Zamore PD  Tuschl T  Sharp PA  Bartel DP 《Cell》2000,101(1):25-33
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directs the sequence-specific degradation of mRNA through a process known as RNA interference (RNAi). Using a recently developed Drosophila in vitro system, we examined the molecular mechanism underlying RNAi. We find that RNAi is ATP dependent yet uncoupled from mRNA translation. During the RNAi reaction, both strands of the dsRNA are processed to RNA segments 21-23 nucleotides in length. Processing of the dsRNA to the small RNA fragments does not require the targeted mRNA. The mRNA is cleaved only within the region of identity with the dsRNA. Cleavage occurs at sites 21-23 nucleotides apart, the same interval observed for the dsRNA itself, suggesting that the 21-23 nucleotide fragments from the dsRNA are guiding mRNA cleavage.  相似文献
10.
Livin, a novel inhibitor of apoptosis protein family member   总被引:204,自引:0,他引:204  
A novel human inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member termed Livin was identified, containing a single baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domain and a COOH-terminal RING finger domain. The mRNA for livin was not detectable by Northern blot in most normal adult tissues with the exception of the placenta, but was present in developmental tissues and in several cancer cell lines. Highest levels were observed in two melanoma-derived cell lines, G361 and SK-Mel29. Transfection of livin in HeLa cells resulted in protection from apoptosis induced by expression of FADD, Bax, RIP, RIP3, and DR6. Similar to other IAP family members, the anti-apoptotic activity of Livin was dependent on the BIR domain. Livin was also capable of inhibiting DEVD-like caspase activity triggered by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In vitro binding studies demonstrated a direct interaction between Livin and the active form of the downstream caspases, caspase-3 and -7, that was dependent on the BIR domain of Livin. In addition, the unprocessed and cleaved forms of caspase-9 co-immunoprecipitated with Livin in vivo, and recombinant Livin could inhibit the activation of caspase-9 induced by Apaf-1, cytochrome c, and dATP. The subcellular distribution of the transfected Livin was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Both Livin and Survivin were expressed in the nucleus and in a filamentous pattern throughout the cytoplasm. In contrast to the apoptotic activity, the COOH-terminal RING domain mediated its subcellular localization patterning. Further studies found that transfection of an antisense construct against livin could trigger apoptosis specifically in cell lines expressing livin mRNA. This was associated with an increase in DNA fragmentation and in DEVD-like caspase activity. Thus, disruption of Livin may provide a strategy to induce apoptosis in certain cancer cells.  相似文献
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