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A ras-related gene with transformation suppressor activity   总被引:114,自引:0,他引:114  
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Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Developing Endosperm of Rice Grains   总被引:78,自引:0,他引:78  
The metabolism of carbohydrates in developing rice endospermwas characterized by a comparison of levels of activities of33 major enzymes between the endosperm and green leaves of rice.Activities of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthaseand branching enzyme (Q-en-zyme), compared on the basis of solubleprotein content, were markedly higher in endosperm than in greenleaves. The high levels of Q-enzyme may be responsible for theefficient production of starch in the rice endosperm. The measurementof levels of metabolic intermediates and the localization ofkey enzymes in isolated amyloplasts from rice endosperm supportthe view that sucrose is metabolized in the cytoplasm via thepathway: sucroseUDPglucosehexose-PFBPtriose-P. Triose-P thenenters the amyloplast, where it is converted to G1P via FBPand, finally, G1P is converted to starch by the concerted reactionsof ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and Q-enzyme. 1Present address: Yamagata Prefectural Agricultural Experi mentStation, Minorigaoka, Yamagata, 990-02 Japan. 2Present address: Institute of Biological Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki, 305 Japan. (Received February 15, 1989; Accepted June 10, 1989)  相似文献
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Using flow cytometry and single cell-based assays, we prospectively identified hepatic stem cells with multilineage differentiation potential and self-renewing capability. These cells could be clonally propagated in culture where they continuously produced hepatocytes and cholangiocytes as descendants while maintaining primitive stem cells. When cells that expanded in vitro were transplanted into recipient animals, they morphologically and functionally differentiated into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes with reconstitution of hepatocyte and bile duct structures. Furthermore, these cells differentiated into pancreatic ductal and acinar cells or intestinal epithelial cells when transplanted into pancreas or duodenal wall. These data indicate that self-renewing pluripotent stem cells persist in the developing mouse liver and that such cells can be induced to become cells of other organs of endodermal origin under appropriate microenvironment. Manipulation of hepatic stem cells may provide new insight into therapies for diseases of the digestive system.  相似文献
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Glutamate release and neuronal damage in ischemia.   总被引:54,自引:0,他引:54  
Y Nishizawa 《Life sciences》2001,69(4):369-381
Neuronal injury caused by ischemia after occlusion of cerebral arteries is believed to be mediated by excessive activation of glutamate receptors. In the ischemic brain, extracellular glutamate is elevated rapidly after the onset of ischemia and declines following reperfusion. The mechanisms of the elevation of extracellular glutamate include enhanced efflux of glutamate and the reduction of glutamate uptake. The early efflux of glutamate occurring immediately after the onset of ischemia is mediated by a calcium-dependent process through activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels. The calcium-independent efflux at later stages is thought to be mediated primarily by glutamate transporters operating in the reverse mode owing to the imbalance of sodium ions across plasma membranes. Although high levels of glutamate in the extracellular space are well established to appear rapidly after the onset of ischemia, a direct linkage between the enhanced release of glutamate and the neuronal injury has not been fully established. In cultured neurons, ischemia induces efflux of glutamate into the extracellular space, but subsequent neuronal loss is not solely caused by the high glutamate concentration. In addition, cultured neurons can be rescued by NMDA antagonists added to the medium after exposure to glutamate receptor agonists. Two mechanisms can be proposed for neuroprotection by late NMDA receptor blockade, i.e., blocking of presynaptic release of glutamate after excessive activation of glutamate receptors, and blocking of postsynaptic sensitization of NMDA receptors.  相似文献
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Genetic and molecular dissection of quantitative traits in rice   总被引:54,自引:0,他引:54  
Recent progress in the generation of a molecular genetic map and markers for rice has made possible a new phase of mapping individual genes associated with complex traits. This type of analysis is often referred to as quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Increasing numbers of QTL analyses are providing enormous amounts of information about QTLs, such as the numbers of loci involved, their chromosomal locations and gene effects. Clarification of genetic bases of complex traits has a big impact not only on fundamental research on rice plant development, but it also has practical benefits for rice breeding. In this review, we summarize recent progress of QTL analysis of several complex traits in rice. A strategy for positional cloning of genes at QTLs is also discussed.  相似文献
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To evaluate the importance of the surrounding nucleotide sequence in the selection of a splice site for mRNA, we have carried out computer studies of eukaryotic protein genes whose entire nucleotide sequences were available. A splice site-like sequence that has a significant homology to the consensus splice junction sequences is frequently found within an intron and exon. It is found that the higher the homology of a candidate donor site sequence to the nine-nucleotide consensus sequence, the higher is its probability of being a donor site. For most of the donors, the stability of presumed base-pairing with U1-RNA is higher than that of donor-like sequences, if any, in the adjacent exon and intron. However, homology of a candidate acceptor sequence to the 15-nucleotide consensus is a poor criterion of an acceptor site. The presence of a sequence that could serve as a branch-point 18 to 37 nucleotides before an acceptor does not seem to be critical in distinguishing it from an acceptor-like sequence. For genes of human, rat, mouse and chicken, respectively, nucleotide frequencies around splice junctions of many genes have been calculated. They seem to be different at some positions around a donor site from species to species. The acceptors for these vertebrates have longer pyrimidine-rich regions than the previous consensus sequence. The newly derived nucleotide frequencies were used as the standard to calculate the weighted homology score of a candidate splice site sequence in a gene of the four species. This weighted homology score of the 40 to 60-nucleotide intron-exon sequence is a much better criterion of an acceptor. These results suggest that the most important signal in the selection of a splice resides in the surrounding nucleotide sequence. It is also suggested that the surrounding nucleotide sequence alone is not generally sufficient for the selection.  相似文献
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