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1.
Genetic diversity evaluation of some elite cotton varieties by RAPD analysis   总被引:32,自引:0,他引:32  
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of elite commercial cotton varieties. Twenty two varieties belonging to Gossypium hirsutum L. and one to G. arboreum L. were analyzed with 50 random decamer primers using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty nine primers detected polymorphism in all 23 cotton varieties, while one produced monomorphic amplification profiles. A total of 349 bands were amplified, 89.1% of which were polymorphic. Cluster analysis by the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA) showed that 17 varieties can be placed in two groups with a similarity ranging from 81.51% to 93.41%. G. hirsutum L. varieties S-12, V3 and MNH-93 showed a similarity of 78.12, 74.46 and 69.56% respectively with rest of the varieties. One variety, CIM-1100, showed 57.02% similarity and was quite distinct. The diploid cotton G. arboreum L. var. Ravi was also very distinct from rest of its tetraploid counterparts and showed only 55.7% similarity. The analysis revealed that the intervarietal genetic relationships of several varieties is related to their center of origin. As expected, most of the varieties have a narrow genetic base. The results obtained can be used for the selection of possible parents to generate a mapping population. The results also reveal the genetic relationship of elite commercial cotton varieties with some standard “Coker” varieties and the diploid G. arboreum L. var. Ravi (old world cotton). Received: 12 July 1996 / Accepted: 26 July 1996  相似文献
2.
Geminivirus disease complexes: an emerging threat   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
Small circular single-stranded DNA satellites have recently been isolated from plants infected with whitefly-transmitted monopartite begomoviruses. The satellites, named DNA beta, depend on the helper viruses for their proliferation and, in turn, are required for helper virus accumulation and symptom expression. They are highly diverse yet retain an overall conserved structure with respect to potential coding regions and regulatory elements. The begomovirus-satellite disease complexes are associated with economically important diseases, and have been isolated from vegetable and fibre crops, ornamental plants and weeds throughout Africa and Asia. Their widespread distribution and diversity, coupled to the global movement of plant material and the dissemination of the whitefly vector, suggests that these disease complexes pose a serious threat to tropical and sub-tropical agro-ecosystems worldwide.  相似文献
3.
We report the simultaneous introduction of three insecticidal genes (the Bt genes cry1Ac and cry2A, and the snowdrop lectin gene gna) into commercially important indica rice varieties M7 and Basmati 370, by particle bombardment. Transgenic plants expressed Cry1Ac, Cry2A and GNA at different levels, either singly or in combination at 0.03–1%, 0.01–0.5% and 0.01–2.5% of total soluble protein, respectively. The transgenes showed stable transmission and expression, and R1 transgenic plants provided significant (p<0.01) protection against three of the most important insect pests of rice: rice leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis), yellow stemborer (Scirpophaga incertulas) and brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens). The triple transformants showed significantly (p<0.05) higher resistance to these insects than plants expressing single transgenes. Bioassays using the triple-transgenic plants showed 100% eradication of the rice leaf folder and yellow stem borer, and 25% reduction in the survival of the brown planthopper. The greatest reduction in insect survival, and the greatest reduction in plant damage, occurred in plants expressing all three transgenes. This approach maximises the utility of gene transfer technology to introduce combinations of genes whose products disrupt different biochemical or physiological processes in the same insect, providing a multi-mechanism defence.  相似文献
4.
Seed Germination of a Halophytic Grass Aeluropus lagopoides   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
Aeluropus lagopoides(Linn.) Trin. Ex Thw. (Poaceae) is a perennialgrass distributed from coastal Sindh and Balochistan to salineflats of Punjab, Pakistan. Seeds collected from an inland populationofA. lagopoides located on the University of Karachi campuswere germinated under various levels of salinity (0, 100, 200,300, 400 and 500 m M NaCl) and temperature regimes (10/20, 15/25,20/30 and 25/35 °C) in a 12 h dark/12 h light photoperiod.Highest germination was obtained under non-saline conditions,and an increase in NaCl concentration progressively inhibitedgermination. Inhibition of germination was greater at coolertemperatures (10/20 °C) when no seed germinated above aconcentration of 300 m M NaCl. The germination response at moderatetemperatures (20/30 °C) was optimal, with 30% of seeds germinatingin 500 m M NaCl. The rate of germination decreased as salinityincreased. Germination rate was highest at 20/30 °C andlowest at 10/20 °C. Seeds were transferred from salt solutionsto distilled water after 20 d and those from high salinitiesrecovered quickly at warmer temperatures with an optimal responseat 20/30 °C. Copyright 2001 Annals of Botany Company Aeluropus lagopoides, germination, halophyte, Karachi, salinity, temperature  相似文献
5.
Inherited cataract is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease that most often presents as a congenital autosomal dominant trait. Here we report linkage of a three-generation family of Pakistani origin with autosomal dominant cataract "zonular nuclear" pulverulent type (CZNP) on chromosome 1q21.1. Genome wide-linkage analysis excluded all the known cataract loci except on chromosome 1q. Significantly positive 2-point lod score values (Z=3.01 at θ=0) were obtained for markers D1S305 and D1S2721, which are known to flank the gene for connexin 50 (Cx50) or gap junction protein alpha-8 (Gja8). Previously a mutation in this gene has been reported in a British family with zonular pulverulent cataract (CZP).Here we describe a second mutation (E48K) in connexin 50 that confirms the involvement of this gene in cataractogenesis. Electronic Publication  相似文献
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7.
Some important physiological selection criteria for salt tolerance in plants   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
Muhammad Ashraf   《Flora》2004,199(5):361-376
Undoubtedly, plant breeders have made a significant achievement in the past few years, improving salinity tolerance in a number of potential crops using artificial selection and conventional breeding approaches, although molecular biology approaches are currently being intensively pursued for achieving this goal. However, most of the selection procedures used so far, were based merely on differences in agronomic characters. Agronomic characters represent the combined genetic and environmental effects on plant growth, and include the integration of the physiological phenomena conferring salinity tolerance. In fact, physiological criteria are able to supply more reliable information than agronomic characters. Although there are large numbers of reports in the literature mainly dealing with water relations, photosynthesis, and accumulation of various inorganic ions and organic metabolites in individual crops, there is little information available on the use of these attributes as selection criteria for improving salt tolerance through selection and breeding programs. In this review, the major adaptive components of salt tolerance such as osmotic adjustment, photosynthesis, water relations and ion relations are reviewed. In view of the complexity of salt tolerance and its great variation at intra-specific and inter-specific levels, it is difficult to identify single criteria, which could be used as effective selection targets. Rather it is most meaningful if physiological and biochemical indicators for individual species are determined rather than generic indicators.  相似文献
8.
Field evaluation and risk assessment of transgenic indica basmati rice   总被引:11,自引:1,他引:10  
We report the first field trial of different transgenic lines of Indica Basmati rice (B-370) expressing cry1Ac and cry2A genes. Different transgenic lines were grown under field conditions for two consecutive years, according to RCBD and Split Plot Design respectively. All the biosafety measures were taken into consideration. Sixty neonate larvae of yellow stem borer were artificially infested into each plant in three installments. Data was recorded in terms of dead hearts and white heads at vegetative and flowering stage respectively. Transgenic lines exhibited inherent ability to protect rice plants from target insects (p<0.01). Natural infestations of rice skipper and rice leaf folder were also observed and transgenic plants were statistically superior to their untransformed counterparts. Green house whole plant bioassays were done by infesting two 2nd instar larvae of rice leaf folder per tiller. Transgenics were 96% more resistant than untransformed control plants. The presence of cry genes was observed with Dot blot, PCR and Southern blot analysis, while ELISA and Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of Cry proteins. All lines expressed higher level of Cry proteins when compared with commercially released cultivars of Bt cotton, maize and potato. It was also observed that although toxin titer substantially decreased with increasing age of the plants, it remained well within the limits to kill the target insects. Morphological studies showed significant variation for days to maturity, plant height and panicle length. Cooking qualities of seeds harvested from these lines were compared with the untransformed control. The transgenic lines had no effect on non-target insects (insects belonging to orders other than diptera and lepidoptera) and germination of three local varieties of wheat. Chances of gene spread were calculated at a level of 0.18% cross pollination in experimental lines.  相似文献
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10.
AIMS: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are commonly used as inoculants for improving the growth and yield of agricultural crops, however screening for the selection of effective PGPR strains is very critical. This study focuses on the screening of effective PGPR strains on the basis of their potential for in vitro auxin production and plant growth promoting activity under gnotobiotic conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: A large number of bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of wheat plants grown at different sites. Thirty isolates showing prolific growth on agar medium were selected and evaluated for their potential to produce auxins in vitro. Colorimetric analysis showed variable amount of auxins (ranging from 1.1 to 12.1 mg l-1) produced by the rhizobacteria in vitro and amendment of the culture media with l-tryptophan (l-TRP), further stimulated auxin biosynthesis (ranging from 1.8 to 24.8 mg l-1). HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of indole acetic acid (IAA) and indole acetamide (IAM) as the major auxins in the culture filtrates of these rhizobacteria. A series of laboratory experiments conducted on two cv. of wheat under gnotobiotic (axenic) conditions demonstrated increases in root elongation (up to 17.3%), root dry weight (up to 13.5%), shoot elongation (up to 37.7%) and shoot dry weight (up to 36.3%) of inoculated wheat seedlings. Linear positive correlation (r = 0.99) between in vitro auxin production and increase in growth parameters of inoculated seeds was found. Based upon auxin biosynthesis and growth-promoting activity, four isolates were selected and designated as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Auxin biosynthesis in sterilized vs nonsterilized soil inoculated with selected PGPR was also monitored that revealed superiority of the selected PGPR over indigenous microflora. Peat-based seed inoculation with selected PGPR isolates exhibited stimulatory effects on grain yields of tested wheat cv. in pot (up to 14.7% increase over control) and field experiments (up to 27.5% increase over control); however, the response varied with cv. and PGPR strains. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the strain, which produced the highest amount of auxins in nonsterilized soil, also caused maximum increase in growth and yield of both the wheat cv. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: This study suggested that potential for auxin biosynthesis by rhizobacteria could be used as a tool for the screening of effective PGPR strains.  相似文献
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