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RAS is regulated by the let-7 microRNA family   总被引:131,自引:0,他引:131  
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory RNAs found in multicellular eukaryotes, including humans, where they are implicated in cancer. The let-7 miRNA times seam cell terminal differentiation in C. elegans. Here we show that the let-7 family negatively regulates let-60/RAS. Loss of let-60/RAS suppresses let-7, and the let-60/RAS 3'UTR contains multiple let-7 complementary sites (LCSs), restricting reporter gene expression in a let-7-dependent manner. mir-84, a let-7 family member, is largely absent in vulval precursor cell P6.p at the time that let-60/RAS specifies the 1 degrees vulval fate in that cell, and mir-84 overexpression suppresses the multivulva phenotype of activating let-60/RAS mutations. The 3'UTRs of the human RAS genes contain multiple LCSs, allowing let-7 to regulate RAS expression. let-7 expression is lower in lung tumors than in normal lung tissue, while RAS protein is significantly higher in lung tumors, providing a possible mechanism for let-7 in cancer.  相似文献
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Many microorganisms secrete extracellular biopolymeric flocculants (EBFs) in the culture broth. This work reviews the development of EBF research and applications. Aspects discussed include a comparison of the chemical and biological flocculating agents, isolation of EBF-producing microorganisms, culture conditions, mechanisms of flocculation, the chemical structure of EBFs, and the role of physicochemical factors in the flocculating activity.  相似文献
5.
Summary Sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs) were derived from eight random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to disease resistance genes in lettuce. SCARs are PCR-based markers that represent single, genetically defined loci that are identified by PCR amplification of genomic DNA with pairs of specific oligonucleotide primers; they may contain high-copy, dispersed genomic sequences within the amplified region. Amplified RAPD products were cloned and sequenced. The sequence was used to design 24-mer oligonucleotide primers for each end. All pairs of SCAR primers resulted in the amplification of single major bands the same size as the RAPD fragment cloned. Polymorphism was either retained as the presence or absence of amplification of the band or appeared as length polymorphisms that converted dominant RAPD loci into codominant SCAR markers. This study provided information on the molecular basis of RAPD markers. The amplified fragment contained no obvious repeated sequences beyond the primer sequence. Five out of eight pairs of SCAR primers amplified an alternate allele from both parents of the mapping population; therefore, the original RAPD polymorphism was likely due to mismatch at the primer sites.  相似文献
6.
生态学范式变迁综论   总被引:73,自引:11,他引:62       下载免费PDF全文
邬建国 《生态学报》1996,16(5):449-460
拟总结生态学研究在若干方面的最新进展,并涉及到平衡与非平衡、同质性与异质性、决定性与随机性,以及单一尺度与等级关联等问题。在此基础上,作者将对生态学中的范式变迁作一论述。缀块动态观点和等级理论的结合,使尺度与空间异质性明确地联系在一起,从而正在形成一个新的生态学范式,并导致了关于生态学系统时空动态的新观点。等级缀块动态范式的主要内容包括缀块等级系统概念、系统动态与缀块变化观点、格局-过程-尺度观点  相似文献
7.
A series of experiments is presented investigating short term and long term changes of the nature of the response of rate of CO2 assimilation to intercellular p(CO2). The relationships between CO2 assimilation rate and biochemical components of leaf photosynthesis, such as ribulose-bisphosphate (RuP2) carboxylase-oxygenase activity and electron transport capacity are examined and related to current theory of CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 species. It was found that the response of the rate of CO2 assimilation to irradiance, partial pressure of O2, p(O2), and temperature was different at low and high intercellular p(CO2), suggesting that CO2 assimilation rate is governed by different processes at low and high intercellular p(CO2). In longer term changes in CO2 assimilation rate, induced by different growth conditions, the initial slope of the response of CO2 assimilation rate to intercellular p(CO2) could be correlated to in vitro measurements of RuP2 carboxylase activity. Also, CO2 assimilation rate at high p(CO2) could be correlated to in vitro measurements of electron transport rate. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that CO2 assimilation rate is limited by the RuP2 saturated rate of the RuP2 carboxylase-oxygenase at low intercellular p(CO2) and by the rate allowed by RuP2 regeneration capacity at high intercellular p(CO2).  相似文献
8.
Mitochondrial DNA in human malignancy   总被引:71,自引:0,他引:71  
9.
In wild aquatic birds and poultry around the world, influenza A viruses carrying 15 antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 antigenic subtypes of neuraminidase (NA) have been described. Here we describe a previously unidentified antigenic subtype of HA (H16), detected in viruses circulating in black-headed gulls in Sweden. In agreement with established criteria for the definition of antigenic subtypes, hemagglutination inhibition assays and immunodiffusion assays failed to detect specific reactivity between H16 and the previously described subtypes H1 to H15. Genetically, H16 HA was found to be distantly related to H13 HA, a subtype also detected exclusively in shorebirds, and the amino acid composition of the putative receptor-binding site of H13 and H16 HAs was found to be distinct from that in HA subtypes circulating in ducks and geese. The H16 viruses contained NA genes that were similar to those of other Eurasian shorebirds but genetically distinct from N3 genes detected in other birds and geographical locations. The European gull viruses were further distinguishable from other influenza A viruses based on their PB2, NP, and NS genes. Gaining information on the full spectrum of avian influenza A viruses and creating reagents for their detection and identification will remain an important task for influenza surveillance, outbreak control, and animal and public health. We propose that sequence analyses of HA and NA genes of influenza A viruses be used for the rapid identification of existing and novel HA and NA subtypes.  相似文献
10.
The salicylic acid signal in plants   总被引:65,自引:0,他引:65  
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