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排序方式: 共有168015条查询结果,搜索用时 203 毫秒
1.
Basic local alignment search tool   总被引:1550,自引:0,他引:1550  
A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.  相似文献
2.
High-efficiency transformation of mammalian cells by plasmid DNA.   总被引:649,自引:121,他引:528       下载免费PDF全文
We describe a simple calcium phosphate transfection protocol and neo marker vectors that achieve highly efficient transformation of mammalian cells. In this protocol, the calcium phosphate-DNA complex is formed gradually in the medium during incubation with cells and precipitates on the cells. The crucial factors for obtaining efficient transformation are the pH (6.95) of the buffer used for the calcium phosphate precipitation, the CO2 level (3%) during the incubation of the DNA with the cells, and the amount (20 to 30 micrograms) and the form (circular) of DNA. In sharp contrast to the results with circular DNA, linear DNA is almost inactive. Under these conditions, 50% of mouse L(A9) cells can be stably transformed with pcDneo, a simian virus 40-based neo (neomycin resistance) marker vector. The NIH3T3, C127, CV1, BHK, CHO, and HeLa cell lines were transformed at efficiencies of 10 to 50% with this vector and the neo marker-incorporated pcD vectors that were used for the construction and transduction of cDNA expression libraries as well as for the expression of cloned cDNA in mammalian cells.  相似文献
3.
Vectors for selective expression of cloned DNAs by T7 RNA polymerase   总被引:327,自引:0,他引:327  
4.
M Orita  Y Suzuki  T Sekiya  K Hayashi 《Genomics》1989,5(4):874-879
We report a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of base changes in given sequences of genomic DNA. This technique is based on the facts that specific regions of genomic sequences can be efficently labeled and amplified simultaneously by using labeled substrates in the polymerase chain reaction and that in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels, the electrophoretic mobility of single-stranded nucleic acid depends not only on its size but also on its sequence. The process does not involve restriction enzyme digestion, blotting, or hybridization to probes. We found that most single base changes in up to 200-base fragments could be detected as mobility shifts. RAS oncogene activation was detected by this technique. We also show that the interspersed repetitive sequences of human, Alu repeats are highly polymorphic.  相似文献
5.
Shin S  Sung BJ  Cho YS  Kim HJ  Ha NC  Hwang JI  Chung CW  Jung YK  Oh BH 《Biochemistry》2001,40(4):1117-1123
Survivin, an apoptosis inhibitor/cell-cycle regulator, is critically required for suppression of apoptosis and ensuring normal cell division in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. It is highly expressed in a cell cycle-regulated manner and localizes together with caspase-3 on microtubules within centrosomes. Whether survivin is a physiologically relevant caspase inhibitor has been unclear due to the difficulties with obtaining correctly folded survivin and finding the right conditions for inhibition assay. In this study, recombinant, active human survivin was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The protein, existing as a homodimer in solution, binds caspase-3 and -7 tightly with dissociation constants of 20.9 and 11.5 nM, respectively, when evaluated by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Consistently, survivin potently inhibits the cleavage of a physiological substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and an artificial tetrapeptide by caspase-3 and -7 in vitro with apparent inhibition constants of 36.0 and 16.5 nM, respectively. The data suggest that sequestering caspase-3 and -7 in inhibited states on microtubules is at least one mechanism of survivin in the suppression of default apoptosis in the G2/M phase. The localization of survivin on microtubules, which is essential for its function, should increase the protective activity at the action site.  相似文献
6.
A systematic analysis of the RNA splice junction sequences of eukaryotic protein coding genes was carried out using the GENBANK databank. Nucleotide frequencies obtained for the highly conserved regions around the splice sites for different categories of organisms closely agree with each other. A striking similarity among the rare splice junctions which do not contain AG at the 3' splice site or GT at the 5' splice site indicates the existence of special mechanisms to recognize them, and that these unique signals may be involved in crucial gene-regulation events and in differentiation. A method was developed to predict potential exons in a bare sequence, using a scoring and ranking scheme based on nucleotide weight tables. This method was used to find a majority of the exons in selected known genes, and also predicted potential new exons which may be used in alternative splicing situations.  相似文献
7.
R D Gietz  A Sugino 《Gene》1988,74(2):527-534
We describe the production of new alleles of the LEU2, URA3 and TRP1 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by in vitro mutagenesis. Each new allele, which lacks restriction enzyme recognition sequences found in the pUC19 multicloning site, was used to construct a unique series of yeast-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors derived from the plasmid pUC19. For each gene a 2 mu vector (YEplac), an ARS1 CEN4 vector (YCplac) and an integrative vector (YIplac) was constructed. The features of these vectors include (i) small size; (ii) unique recognition site for each restriction enzyme found in the pUC19 multicloning site; (iii) screening for plasmids containing inserts by color assay; (iv) high plasmid yield; (v) efficient transformation of S. cerevisiae. These vectors should allow greater flexibility with regard to DNA restriction fragment manipulation and subcloning.  相似文献
8.
9.
Human lymphocytes were either exposed to X-irradiation (25 to 200 rads) or treated with H2O2 (9.1 to 291 microM) at 4 degrees C and the extent of DNA migration was measured using a single-cell microgel electrophoresis technique under alkaline conditions. Both agents induced a significant increase in DNA migration, beginning at the lowest dose evaluated. Migration patterns were relatively homogeneous among cells exposed to X-rays but heterogeneous among cells treated with H2O2. An analysis of repair kinetics following exposure to 200 rads X-rays was conducted with lymphocytes obtained from three individuals. The bulk of the DNA repair occurred within the first 15 min, while all of the repair was essentially complete by 120 min after exposure. However, some cells demonstrated no repair during this incubation period while other cells demonstrated DNA migration patterns indicative of more damage than that induced by the initial irradiation with X-rays. This technique appears to be sensitive and useful for detecting damage and repair in single cells.  相似文献
10.
The E6 protein encoded by the oncogenic human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 is one of two viral products expressed in HPV-associated cancers. E6 is an oncoprotein which cooperates with E7 to immortalize primary human keratinocytes. Insight into the mechanism by which E6 functions in oncogenesis is provided by the observation that the E6 protein encoded by HPV-16 and HPV-18 can complex the wild-type p53 protein in vitro. Wild-type p53 gene has tumor suppressor properties, and is a target for several of the oncoproteins encoded by DNA tumor viruses. In this study we demonstrate that the E6 proteins of the oncogenic HPVs that bind p53 stimulate the degradation of p53. The E6-promoted degradation of p53 is ATP dependent and involves the ubiquitin-dependent protease system. Selective degradation of cellular proteins such as p53 with negative regulatory functions provides a novel mechanism of action for dominant-acting oncoproteins.  相似文献
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