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1.
Glutamine synthetases from roots, nodules, and leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. have been purified to homogeneity and their polypeptide composition determined.

The leaf enzyme is composed of six polypeptides. The cytosolic fraction contains two 43,000 dalton polypeptides and the chloroplastic enzyme is formed by four 45,000 dalton polypeptides. Root glutamine synthetase consists only of the same two polypeptides of 43,000 dalton that are present in the leaf enzyme. The nodule enzyme is formed by two polypeptides of 43,000 dalton, one is common to the leaf and root enzyme but the other is specific for N2-fixing nodule tissue. The two glutamine synthetase forms of the nodule contain a different proportion of the 43,000 dalton polypeptides.

  相似文献
2.
Variation in the wood and bark anatomy of the dominant species of a mangrove forest community in Mexico was evaluated in relation to some environmental factors, and their physiological adaptations to salinity and flooding period are discussed. The forest is characterized by three zones according to the presence of dominant tree species and flooding periodicity. Vessel arrangement and wood and bark ray height are strongly associated with flooding zones where trees are growing. Variance analyses revealed significant differences among zones for these anatomical characteristics. Soil texture and water salinity were the most useful parameters for the prediction of values of anatomical characteristics. More abundant vessels in radial multiples in a shorter flooding period suggest a functional advantage of multiple vessel groups. Taller wood and bark rays in response to prolonged flooding period can be attributed to anoxic conditions. Among zones, significant differences in the vulnerability index of the species were detected, but not with respect to relative conductivity. Significant differences among zones exist for wood and bark characteristics involved in vertical and horizontal water transport, photosynthates and gas exchange.  相似文献
3.
Changes in Soluble Carbohydrates during Seed Storage   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
The soluble sugars present in the maize (Zea mays L.) embryo may serve as important components of protection or may contribute to the deteriorative changes occurring during seed storage. Examination of the changes in sugars during accelerated aging of maize seeds indicates that the decline in vigor is associated with a marked decline in monosaccharides and in raffinose. Sucrose content remains relatively stable. The depletion of raffinose may have special relevance to the decline in seed vigor.  相似文献
4.
Both calli and plantlets of maize (Zea mays L. var Tuxpeño 1) were exposed to specific nitrogen sources, and the aminative (NADH) and deaminative (NAD+) glutamate dehydrogenase activities were measured at various periods of time in homogenates of calli, roots, and leaves. A differential effect of the nitrogen sources on the tissues tested was observed. In callus tissue, glutamate, ammonium, and urea inhibited glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity. The amination and deamination reactions also showed different ratios of activity under different nitrogen sources. In roots, ammonium and glutamine produced an increase in GDH-NADH activity whereas the same metabolites were inhibitory of this activity in leaves. These data suggest the presence of isoenzymes or conformers of GDH, specific for each tissue, whose activities vary depending on the nutritional requirements of the tissue and the state of differentiation.  相似文献
5.
The proteins synthesized during the first hours of seed imbibition were studied in axes and scutellum of maize embryos separately. Increase in fresh weight was followed in the embryonic axes through the germination period. Pulse labeling experiments with 14C-amino acids were carried out at two stages of development: 0 to 6 and 18 to 24 hours in the presence and absence of α-amanitin. The proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and fluorography. Results showed a major pattern of proteins common to both tissues, axes and scutellum (`house keeping' proteins), besides the specific proteins synthesized by each tissue. In the axes, the changes in proteins observed between the periods of 0 to 6 and 18 to 24 hours of development seem to be due both to newly synthesized mRNA as well as to delayed translation of stored mRNA species.  相似文献
6.
The effect of auxin on ribosomal protein phosphorylation of germinating maize (Zea mays) tissues was investigated. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of [32P] ribosomal protein patterns for natural and synthetic auxin-treated tissues were performed. Both the rate of 32P incorporation and the electrophoretic patterns were dependent on 32P pulse length, suggesting that active protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation occurred in small and large subunit proteins, in control as well as in auxin-treated tissues. The effect of ribosomal protein phosphorylation on in vitro translation was tested. Measurements of poly(U) translation rates as a function of ribosome concentration provided apparent Km values significantly different for auxin-treated and nontreated tissues. These findings suggest that auxin might exert some kind of translational control by regulating the phosphorylated status of ribosomal proteins.  相似文献
7.
The capacity of the isolated barley aleurone layer for endosperm acidification has been demonstrated (J Mikola, M Virtanen 1980 Plant Physiol 66: S-142). The kinetics of this acidification by isolated wheat aleurone layer and its effect on starchy endosperm solubilization are reported.  相似文献
8.
9.
Lepe BG  Avila EJ 《Plant physiology》1975,56(4):460-463
It has been shown that plants can accumulate K+ through an energy-dependent process. The effect of alkylguanidines, in particular octylguanidine on the uptake of 86Rb+ by excised barley roots (Hordeum vulgare var. Apizaco LV-72), has been studied. 86Rb+ was used as tracer of K+. The uptake of 86Rb+ which is linear with time and shows saturation kinetics is inhibited by octylguanidine. Half-maximal inhibition of 86Rb+ uptake is attained at 50 μM octylguanidine. Octylguanidine induces a decrease in the Vmax of the process and increases the Km of the system for Rb+. When the effects of various alkylguanidines were studied, the following order of effectiveness was encountered; octylguanidine = hexilguanidine > butylguanidine > ethylguanidine > guanidine. This suggests that guanidines inhibit Rb+ uptake by interacting through its positively charged guanidinium group with a Rb+ carrier while the alkyl chain interacts with the hydrophobic milieu of the membrane.  相似文献
10.
Human sperm are endowed with putative voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) that produce measurable increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in response to membrane depolarization with potassium. These channels are blocked by nickel, inactivate in 1–2 min in calcium-deprived medium, and are remarkably stimulated by NH4Cl, suggesting a role for intracellular pH (pHi). In a previous work, we showed that calcium permeability through these channels increases approximately onefold during in vitro "capacitation," a calcium-dependent process that sperm require to fertilize eggs. In this work, we have determined the pHi dependence of sperm VDCC. Simultaneous depolarization and pHi alkalinization with NH4Cl induced an [Ca2+]i increase that depended on the amount of NH4Cl added. VDCC stimulation as a function of pHi showed a sigmoid curve in the 6.6–7.2 pHi range, with a half-maximum stimulation at pH 7.00. At higher pHi (7.3), a further stimulation occurred. Calcium release from internal stores did not contribute to the stimulating effect of pHi because the [Ca2+]i increase induced by progesterone, which opens a calcium permeability pathway that does not involve gating of VDCC, was unaffected by ammonium. The ratio of pHi-stimulated-to-nonstimulated calcium influx was nearly constant at different test depolarization values. Likewise, depolarization-induced calcium influx in pHi-stimulated and nonstimulated cells was equally blocked by nickel. In our capacitating conditions pHi increased 0.11 pH units, suggesting that the calcium influx stimulation observed during sperm capacitation might be partially caused by pHi alkalinization. Additionally, a calcium permeability pathway triggered exclusively by pHi alkalinization was detected. mammalian sperm; capacitation; intracellular calcium  相似文献
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