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The development of drought tolerant wheat cultivars has been slow due to lack of understanding the diagnostic physiological parameters associated with improved productivity under water stress. We evaluated responses to PEG induced osmotic stress under hydroponics in D-genome synthetic derived and bread wheat germplasm with the main aim to unravel and identify some promising attributes having role in stress tolerances. Genotypes used in this study differed in their morpho-physiological and biochemical attributes. Tolerant genotypes exhibited the ability to ameliorate harmful effects of PEG induced osmotic stress through better osmotic adjustment achieved through substantial relative water content (RWC), lowered osmotic potential, relatively stable root length having maximum water extraction capacity, significant increase in osmoprotectant concentration and relatively enhanced antioxidant activities. The results clearly revealed the importance of synthetic derivatives over check cultivars and conventional wheats in terms of osmotic stress responses. Interestingly, synthetic-derived advanced lines with Aegilops tauschii in its parentage including AWL-02, AWL-04 and AWL-07 proved superior over the best rainfed check cultivar (Wa-01). It was concluded that synthetic-derived wheats has great potential to improve a range of stress adaptive traits. It could, therefore, be recommended to be a useful strategy for allowing modern bread wheat to become adapted to a wider range of environments in future climate change scenarios.  相似文献
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Rice diseases (bacterial, fungal, or viral) threaten food productivity. Host resistance is the most efficient, environmentally friendly method to cope with such diverse pathogens. Quantitative resistance conferred by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is a valuable resource for rice disease resistance improvement. Although QTLs confer partial but durable resistance to many pathogen species in different crop plants, the molecular mechanisms of quantitative disease resistance remain mostly unknown. Quantitative resistance and non-host resistance are types of broad-spectrum resistance, which are mediated by resistance (R) genes. Because R genes activate different resistance pathways, investigating the genetic spectrum of resistance may lead to minimal losses from harmful diseases. Genome studies can reveal interactions between different genes and their pathways and provide insight into gene functions. Protein–protein interaction (proteomics) studies using molecular and bioinformatics tools may further enlighten our understanding of resistance phenomena.  相似文献
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into isolated primary liver cells and cell lines requires interaction with the cell surface receptors. The study of HCV attachment with host cell surface receptors has been hindered by the unavailability of competent cell culture based system for HCV propagation. This problem has been overcome by the development of genetically tagged infectious HCV pseudo particles (HCVpp) harboring unmodified E1 and E2 glycoproteins. Studies using cell binding assays together with infection assays using HCVpp have shown that CD81 and scavenger receptor (SRBI) are actively involved in binding with envelope proteins facilitating the viral entrance process. This paper aimed to develop HCVpp of local HCV 3a Pakistani isolate and to study the viral tropism role of CD81 and SRBI receptors in HCV infectivity. HCV E1 and E2 genes were amplified and cloned in mammalian expression vector pcDNA 3.1/myc. The expressing plasmid of HCV E1–E2 glycoprotein in native form was co-transfected into 293FT cells with lentiviral packaging plasmid encoding the MLV Gag–Pol core proteins, and a packaging competent MLV-derived genome (pMLVYCMV-Luc) encoding the luciferase marker protein to produce infectious HCVpp. Anti-CD81 antibody (CBL579), anti-SRBI type II antibody (sc-20441) HCV anti-E2 mouse IgG1 (sc-65457) and HCV anti-E1 antibody mouse IgG1 (sc-65459) were used in this setup. We showed that primary site of viral replication is liver which involve CD81 and SRBI receptors for HCV gp-dependent infection with HCVpp. This is the preliminary reported cell cultured based mechanism from Pakistan which facilitated functional studies of different antiviral agents. Understanding of this technique will help in development of new antiviral therapeutics focusing on earlier steps of HCV life cycle. We have developed infectious pseudo particles of local 3a-isolate and concluded that a number of liver-specific surface proteins function along with CD81 and SRBI receptor regarding HCV infectivity. To endeavors and to identify this liver specific co-receptor molecule(s) will provide insights into the role of these molecules in the initial steps of HCV life cycle.  相似文献
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The exploration of genetically superior accessions is the key source of germplasm conservation and potential breeding material for the future. To meet the demand of better yielding chickpea cultivars in Pakistan the present study was organized to select more stable and resistant lines from indigenous as well as exotic chickpea germplasm obtained from Plant Genetic Resource Institute (PGRI), National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. For the identification and evaluation of chickpea wilt resistant lines against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Schlechtends), the germplasm was tested in the field for the selection of wilt resistant lines and the PCR based molecular markers were investigated to use Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for selection of the desirable cultivars. In field trial, 70 % accessions were resistant to wilt disease, while the remaining 30 % have shown susceptibility to the disease. A total of 5 RAPD and 15 SSR markers were screened for molecular based characterization of wilt response. The data of molecular markers were scored by the presence (1) and absence (0) of allele and subjected to statistical analysis. The analysis was based on coefficient of molecular similarity using UPGMA and sorted the germplasm into two groups based on disease response. Among the total used RAPD/SSR primers, only TA194 SSR marker showed linkage to wilt resistant locus at 85 % probability. The linkage of a marker was reconfirmed by receiver operating characteristic curve. The use of the sorted wilt resistant genotypes through SSR marker TA194 can make available ample prospect in MAS breeding for yield improvement of the crop in Pakistan.  相似文献
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