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1.
Axonal regeneration in the lesioned mammalian central nervous system is abortive, and this causes permanent disabilities in individuals with spinal cord injuries. In adult rats, olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) transplants successfully led to functional and structural recovery after complete spinal cord transection. From 3 to 7 months post surgery, all OEG-transplanted animals recovered locomotor functions and sensorimotor reflexes. They presented voluntary hindlimb movements, they supported their body weight, and their hindlimbs responded to light skin contact and proprioceptive stimuli. In addition, relevant motor axons (corticospinal, raphespinal, and coeruleospinal) regenerated for long distances within caudal cord stumps. Therefore, OEG transplantation provides a useful repair strategy in adult mammals with traumatic spinal cord injuries. Our results with these cells could lead to new therapies for the treatment of spinal cord lesions in humans.  相似文献
2.
3.
Nitric oxide is required for root organogenesis   总被引:70,自引:0,他引:70  
4.
Nitric oxide and abscisic acid cross talk in guard cells   总被引:63,自引:0,他引:63  
5.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a freely diffusible, gaseous free radical and an important signaling molecule in animals. In plants, NO influences aspects of growth and development, and can affect plant responses to stress. In some cases, the effects of NO are the result of its interaction with reactive oxygen species (ROS). These interactions can be cytotoxic or protective. Because gibberellin (GA)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Himalaya) aleurone layers is mediated by ROS, we examined the effects of NO donors on PCD and ROS-metabolizing enzymes in this system. NO donors delay PCD in layers treated with GA, but do not inhibit metabolism in general, or the GA-induced synthesis and secretion of alpha-amylase. alpha-Amylase secretion is stimulated slightly by NO donors. The effects of NO donors are specific for NO, because they can be blocked completely by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide. The antioxidant butylated hydroxy toluene also slowed PCD, and these data support our hypothesis that NO is a protective antioxidant in aleurone cells. The amounts of CAT and SOD, two enzymes that metabolize ROS, are greatly reduced in aleurone layers treated with GA. Treatment with GA in the presence of NO donors delays the loss of CAT and SOD. We speculate that NO may be an endogenous modulator of PCD in barley aleurone cells.  相似文献
6.
Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion   总被引:48,自引:0,他引:48  
The primary hypothesis for the astonishing success of many exotics as community invaders relative to their importance in their native communities is that they have escaped the natural enemies that control their population growth – the `natural enemies hypothesis'. However, the frequent failure of introduced biocontrols, weak consumer effects on the growth and reproduction of some invaders, and the lack of consistent strong top-down regulation in many natural ecological systems indicate that other mechanisms must be involved in the success of some exotic plants. One mechanism may be the release by the invader of chemical compounds that have harmful effects on the members of the recipient plant community (i.e., allelopathy). Here, we provide an abbreviated compilation of evidence for allelopathy in general, present a detailed case study for Centaurea diffusa, an invasive Eurasian forb in western North America, and review general evidence for allelopathic effects of invasive plants in native communities. The primary rationale for considering allelopathy as a mechanism for the success of invaders is based on two premises. First, invaders often establish virtual monocultures where diverse communities once flourished, a phenomenon unusual in natural communities. Second, allelopathy may be more important in recipient than in origin communities because the former are more likely to be naïve to the chemicals possessed by newly arrived species. Indeed, results from experiments on C. diffusa suggest that this invader produces chemicals that long-term and familiar Eurasian neighbors have adapted to, but that C. diffusa's new North American neighbors have not. A large number of early studies demonstrated strong potential allelopathic effects of exotic invasive plants; however, most of this work rests on controversial methodology. Nevertheless, during the last 15 years, methodological approaches have improved. Allelopathic effects have been tested on native species, allelochemicals have been tested in varying resource conditions, models have been used to estimate comparisons of resource and allelopathic effects, and experimental techniques have been used to ameliorate chemical effects. We do not recommend allelopathy as a `unifying theory' for plant interactions, nor do we espouse the view that allelopathy is the dominant way that plants interact, but we argue that non-resource mechanisms should be returned to the discussion table as a potential mechanism for explaining the remarkable success of some invasive species. Ecologists should consider the possibility that resource and non-resource mechanisms may work simultaneously, but vary in their relative importance depending on the ecological context in which they are studied. One such context might be exotic plant invasion.  相似文献
7.
Carbon catabolite repression in yeast.   总被引:44,自引:0,他引:44  
8.
A global analysis of root distributions for terrestrial biomes   总被引:44,自引:0,他引:44  
Understanding and predicting ecosystem functioning (e.g., carbon and water fluxes) and the role of soils in carbon storage requires an accurate assessment of plant rooting distributions. Here, in a comprehensive literature synthesis, we analyze rooting patterns for terrestrial biomes and compare distributions for various plant functional groups. We compiled a database of 250 root studies, subdividing suitable results into 11 biomes, and fitted the depth coefficient to the data for each biome (Gale and Grigal 1987). is a simple numerical index of rooting distribution based on the asymptotic equation Y=1-d, where d = depth and Y = the proportion of roots from the surface to depth d. High values of correspond to a greater proportion of roots with depth. Tundra, boreal forest, and temperate grasslands showed the shallowest rooting profiles (=0.913, 0.943, and 0.943, respectively), with 80–90% of roots in the top 30 cm of soil; deserts and temperate coniferous forests showed the deepest profiles (=0.975 and 0.976, respectively) and had only 50% of their roots in the upper 30 cm. Standing root biomass varied by over an order of magnitude across biomes, from approximately 0.2 to 5 kg m-2. Tropical evergreen forests had the highest root biomass (5 kg m-2), but other forest biomes and sclerophyllous shrublands were of similar magnitude. Root biomass for croplands, deserts, tundra and grasslands was below 1.5 kg m-2. Root/shoot (R/S) ratios were highest for tundra, grasslands, and cold deserts (ranging from 4 to 7); forest ecosystems and croplands had the lowest R/S ratios (approximately 0.1 to 0.5). Comparing data across biomes for plant functional groups, grasses had 44% of their roots in the top 10 cm of soil. (=0.952), while shrubs had only 21% in the same depth increment (=0.978). The rooting distribution of all temperate and tropical trees was =0.970 with 26% of roots in the top 10 cm and 60% in the top 30 cm. Overall, the globally averaged root distribution for all ecosystems was =0.966 (r 2=0.89) with approximately 30%, 50%, and 75% of roots in the top 10 cm, 20 cm, and 40 cm, respectively. We discuss the merits and possible shortcomings of our analysis in the context of root biomass and root functioning.  相似文献
9.
Beligni MV  Lamattina L 《Planta》2000,210(2):215-221
Seed germination, greening of etiolated plants and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation are stimulated by light, which is sensed by various types of photoreceptor. Nitric oxide (NO) has proven to be a bioactive molecule, especially in mammalian cells and, most recently, in plants. Like some phytochrome-dependent processes, many NO-mediated ones are accomplished through increases in cGMP levels. Given these similarities, we proposed that NO could take part in light-mediated events in plants. Here we show that NO promotes seed germination and de-etiolation, and inhibits hypocotyl and internode elongation, processes mediated by light. Two NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine induced germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) seeds in conditions in which this process is dependent on light (e.g. 26 °C). This was a dose-dependent response and was arrested by addition of an NO scavenger, carboxy-PTIO. In addition, nitrite and nitrate, two NO-decomposition products were ineffective in stimulating germination. Wheat seedlings sprayed with SNP and grown in darkness contained 30–40% more chlorophyll than control seedlings. Nitric-oxide-mediated partial greening was increased by light pulses, wounding and biotic stress. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (ecotype Columbia) and lettuce seedlings grown in the dark had 20%-shorter hypocotyls in NO treatments than in control ones. On the other hand, internode lengths of potato plants growing under low light intensity and sprayed with 100 μM SNP were also 20% shorter than control ones. These results implicate NO as a stimulator molecule in plant photomorphogenesis, either dependent on or independent of plant photoreceptors. Received: 27 April 1999 / Accepted: 16 June 1999  相似文献
10.
Many environmental conditions subject plants to oxidative stress, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are overproduced. These ROS act as transduction signals in plant defense responses, but also cause effects that result in cellular damage. Since nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule able to scavenge ROS, we analyzed its effect on some cytotoxic processes produced by ROS in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Pampeana) leaves. Two NO donors: (i) sodium nitroprusside and (ii) a mixed solution of ascorbic acid and NaNO2, were able to prevent chlorophyll loss mediated by the methyl viologen herbicide diquat (a ROS generator), with effective concentrations falling between 10 and 100 μM of the donors. This protection was mimicked by thiourea and penicillamine, two antioxidant compounds. Residual products from NO generation and decomposition failed to prevent chlorophyll decline. A specific NO scavenger, the potassium salt of 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO), arrested NO-mediated chlorophyll protection. In addition, some events mediated by ROS during infection of potato leaves with Phytophthora infestans (race 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, mating type A2) were also examined. In this sense, NO proved to markedly decrease ion leakage and the number of lesions, indicative of cell death, produced upon infection in potato leaves. The NO-mediated decrease in ion leakage was also inhibited by carboxy-PTIO. Fragmentation of DNA diminished when P. infestans-infected potato leaves were treated with 100 μM SNP. These results suggest that, acting as an antioxidant, NO can strongly counteract many ROS-mediated cytotoxic processes in plants. Moreover, the evidence of NO functionality in the plant kingdom is strengthened by this work. Received: 18 December 1998 / Accepted: 19 January 1999  相似文献
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