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1.
trans activation of promoters by viral regulatory proteins provides a useful tool to study coordinate control of gene expression. Immediate-early (IE) regions 1 and 2 of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) code for a series of proteins that originate from differentially spliced mRNAs. These IE proteins are proposed to regulate the temporal expression of the viral genome. To examine the structure and function of the IE proteins, we used linker insertion mutagenesis of the IE gene region as well as cDNA expression vector cloning of the abundant IE mRNAs. We showed that IE1 and IE2 proteins of CMV exhibit promoter-specific differences in their modes of action by either trans activating early and IE promoters or repressing the major IE promoter (MIEP). Transient cotransfection experiments with permissive human cells revealed a synergistic interaction between the 72- and the 86-kilodalton (kDa) IE proteins in trans activating an early promoter. In addition, transfection studies revealed that the 72-kDa protein was capable of trans activating the MIEP. In contrast, the 86-kDa protein specifically repressed the MIEP and this repression was suppressed by the 72-kDa protein. Furthermore, observations based on the primary sequence structure revealed a modular arrangement of putative regulatory motifs that could either potentiate or repress gene expression. These modular domains are either shared or unique among the IE proteins. From these data, we propose a model for IE protein function in the coordinate control of CMV gene expression.  相似文献
2.
Activation of SOCS-3 by resistin   总被引:44,自引:0,他引:44       下载免费PDF全文
Resistin is an adipocyte hormone that modulates glucose homeostasis. Here we show that in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, resistin attenuates multiple effects of insulin, including insulin receptor (IR) phosphorylation, IR substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activation, phosphatidylinositol triphosphate production, and activation of protein kinase B/Akt. Remarkably, resistin treatment markedly induces the gene expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3), a known inhibitor of insulin signaling. The 50% effective dose for resistin induction of SOCS-3 is approximately 20 ng/ml, close to levels of resistin in serum. Association of SOCS-3 protein with the IR is also increased by resistin. Inhibition of SOCS function prevented resistin from antagonizing insulin action in adipocytes. SOCS-3 induction is the first cellular effect of resistin that is independent of insulin and is a likely mediator of resistin's inhibitory effect on insulin signaling in adipocytes.  相似文献
3.
Metformin reverses fatty liver disease in obese, leptin-deficient mice   总被引:41,自引:0,他引:41  
There is no known treatment for fatty liver, a ubiquitous cause of chronic liver disease. However, because it is associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin-resistance, insulin-sensitizing agents might be beneficial. To evaluate this possibility, insulin-resistant ob/ob mice with fatty livers were treated with metformin, an agent that improves hepatic insulin-resistance. Metformin improved fatty liver disease, reversing hepatomegaly, steatosis and aminotransferase abnormalities. The therapeutic mechanism likely involves inhibited hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and TNF-inducible factors that promote hepatic lipid accumulation and ATP depletion. These findings suggest a mechanism of action for metformin and identify novel therapeutic targets in insulin-resistant states.  相似文献
4.
A relatively quick, inexpensive and consistent protocol for extraction of DNA from expanded leaf material containing large quantities of polyphenols, tannins and polysaccharides is described. Mature strawberry leaves, which contain high levels of these secondary components, were used as a study group. The method involves a modified CTAB extraction, employing high salt concentrations to remove polysaccharides, the use of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to remove polyphenols, an extended RNase treatment and a phenol-chloroform extraction. Average yields range from 20 to 84 μg/g mature leaf tissue for both wild and cultivated octoploid and diploidFragaria species. Results from 60 plants were examined, and were consistently amplifiable in the RAPD reaction with as little as 0.5 ng DNA per 25-μL reaction. Presently, this is the first procedure for the isolation of DNA from mature strawberry leaf tissue that produces consistent results for a variety of different species, both octoploid and diploid, and is both stable and PCR amplifiable before and after extended storage. This procedure may prove useful for other difficult species in the family Rosaceae.  相似文献
5.
Phytosterols (plant sterols) are triterpenes that are important structural components of plant membranes, and free phytosterols serve to stabilize phospholipid bilayers in plant cell membranes just as cholesterol does in animal cell membranes. Most phytosterols contain 28 or 29 carbons and one or two carbon–carbon double bonds, typically one in the sterol nucleus and sometimes a second in the alkyl side chain. Phytostanols are a fully-saturated subgroup of phytosterols (contain no double bonds). Phytostanols occur in trace levels in many plant species and they occur in high levels in tissues of only in a few cereal species. Phytosterols can be converted to phytostanols by chemical hydrogenation. More than 200 different types of phytosterols have been reported in plant species. In addition to the free form, phytosterols occur as four types of “conjugates,” in which the 3β-OH group is esterified to a fatty acid or a hydroxycinnamic acid, or glycosylated with a hexose (usually glucose) or a 6-fatty-acyl hexose. The most popular methods for phytosterol analysis involve hydrolysis of the esters (and sometimes the glycosides) and capillary GLC of the total phytosterols, either in the free form or as TMS or acetylated derivatives. Several alternative methods have been reported for analysis of free phytosterols and intact phytosteryl conjugates. Phytosterols and phytostanols have received much attention in the last five years because of their cholesterol-lowering properties. Early phytosterol-enriched products contained free phytosterols and relatively large dosages were required to significantly lower serum cholesterol. In the last several years two spreads, one containing phytostanyl fatty-acid esters and the other phytosteryl fatty-acid esters, have been commercialized and were shown to significantly lower serum cholesterol at dosages of 1–3 g per day. The popularity of these products has caused the medical and biochemical community to focus much attention on phytosterols and consequently research activity on phytosterols has increased dramatically.  相似文献
6.
Leptin is a potent stimulator of bone growth in ob/ob mice   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
Leptin, the product of the obese gene, is a circulating hormone secreted primarily from adipocytes. The lack of leptin in ob/ob mice, who are homozygous for the obese gene, results in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperphagia, obesity, infertility, decreased brain size and decreased stature. To this end, we investigated the role of leptin as a hormonal regulator of bone growth. Leptin administration led to a significant increase in femoral length, total body bone area, bone mineral content and bone density in ob/ob mice as compared to vehicle treated controls. The increase in total body bone mass was a result of an increase in both trabecular and cortical bone mass. These results suggest that the decreased stature of the ob/ob mouse is due to a developmental defect that is readily reversible upon leptin administration. Our demonstration that the signalling or long form (Ob-Rb) of the leptin receptor is present in both primary adult osteoblasts and chondrocytes suggests that the growth promoting effects of leptin could be direct. In summary, these results indicate a novel role for leptin in skeletal bone growth and development.  相似文献
7.
XIAP: Apoptotic brake and promising therapeutic target   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
The X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis, XIAP, is a key member of the newly discovered family of intrinsic inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins. IAPs block cell death both in vitro and in vivo by virtue of inhibition of distinct caspases. Although other proteins have been identified which inhibit upstream caspases, only the IAPs have been demonstrated to be endogenous repressors of the terminal caspase cascade. In turn, the caspase inhibiting activity of XIAP is negatively regulated by at least two XIAP-interacting proteins, XAF1 and Smac/DIABLO. In addition to the inhibition of caspases, recent discoveries from several laboratories suggest that XIAP is also involved in a number of other biologically significant cellular activities including modulation of receptor-mediated signal transduction and protein ubiquitination. XIAP is also translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism mediated by a specific sequence called IRES (for Internal Ribosome Entry Site) which is found in the XIAP 5 UTR. XIAP protein is thus synthesized under various conditions of cellular stress such as serum starvation and low dose -irradiation induced apoptosis, conditions that lead to the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis. The multiple biological activities of XIAP, its unique translational and post-translational control and the centrality of the caspase cascade make the control of XIAP expression an exceptionally promising molecular target for modulating apoptosis. Therapeutic benefits can be derived from both the suppression of inappropriate cell death such as in neurodegenerative disorders and ischemic injury or in the activation of latent cell death pathways such as in autoimmune disease and cancer where apoptosis induction is the desired outcome.  相似文献
8.
Bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) was extracted from infected leaves of several host plants inoculated with phytopathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae pathovars. Extraction was by a facilitated diffusion procedure or by collection of intercellular fluid using a centrifugation method. The extracted EPS was purified and characterized. All bacterial pathogens which induced watersoaked lesions on their host leaves, a characteristic of most members of this bacterial group, were found to produce alginic acid (a polymer consisting of varying ratios of mannuronic and guluronic acids). Only trace amounts of bacterial EPS could be isolated from leaves inoculated with a pathovar (pv. syringae) which does not induce the formation of lesions with a watersoaked appearance. Guluronic acid was either present in very low amounts or absent in the alginic acid preparations. All bacterial alginates were acetylated (7-11%). Levan (a fructan) was apparently not produced as an EPS in vivo by any of the pathogens tested.  相似文献
9.
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from a Rhizobium phaseoli mutant, CE109, was isolated and compared with that of its wild-type parent, CE3. A previous report has shown that the mutant is defective in infection thread development, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows that it has an altered LPS (K. D. Noel, K. A. VandenBosch, and B. Kulpaca, J. Bacteriol. 168:1392-1462, 1986). Mild acid hydrolysis of the CE3 LPS released a polysaccharide and an oligosaccharide, PS1 and PS2, respectively. Mild acid hydrolysis of CE109 LPS released only an oligosaccharide. Chemical and immunochemical analyses showed that CE3-PS1 is the antigenic O chain of this strain and that CE109 LPS does not contain any of the major sugar components of CE3-PS1. CE109 oligosaccharide was identical in composition to CE3-PS2. The lipid A's from both strains were very similar in composition, with only minor quantitative variations. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of CE3 and CE109 LPSs showed that CE3 LPS separated into two bands, LPS I and LPS II, while CE109 had two bands which migrated to positions similar to that of LPS II. Immunoblotting with anti-CE3 antiserum showed that LPS I contains the antigenic O chain of CE3, PS1. Anti-CE109 antiserum interacted strongly with both CE109 LPS bands and CE3 LPS II and interacted weakly with CE3 LPS I. Mild-acid hydrolysis of CE3 LPS I, extracted from the polyacrylamide gel, showed that it contained both PS1 and PS2. The results in this report showed that CE109 LPS consists of only the lipid A core and is missing the antigenic O chain.  相似文献
10.
Segregation of transgenes in maize   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23  
Progeny recovered from backcrossed transgenic maize tissue culture regenerants (R0) were analyzed to determine the segregation, expression, and stability of the introduced genes. Transgenic A188×B73 R0 plants (regenerated from embryogenic suspension culture cells transformed by microprojectile bombardment; see [9]) were pollinated with nontransformed B73 pollen. Inheritance of a selectable marker gene, bar, and a nonselectable marker gene, uidA, was analyzed in progeny (R1) representing four independent transformation events. Activity of the bar gene product, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), was assessed in plants comprising the four R1 populations. The number of R1 plants containing PAT activity per total number of R1 plants recovered for each population was 2/7, 19/34, 3/14 and 73/73. Molecular analysis confirmed the segregation of bar in three R1 populations and the lack of segregation in one R1 population. Cosegregation analysis indicated genetic linkage of bar and uidA in all four R1 populations. Analysis of numerous R2 plants derived from crossing transformed R1 plants with nontransformed inbreds revealed 1:1 segregation of PAT activity in three of four lines, including the line that failed to segregate in the R1 generation. Integrated copies of bar in one line appeared to be unstable or poorly transmitted.  相似文献
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