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Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Chl FPs) derived from the slow (long-term) induction kinetics of modulated Chl a fluorescence are reviewed and analysed with respect to their application in photosynthesis research. Only four mutually independent Chl FPs, calculated from values of five essential Chl fluorescence (ChlF) yields, are distinguished as the basic ones. These are: the maximum quantum yield of PS2 photochemistry (P O), the photochemical quenching of variable ChlF (qP), the non-photochemical quenching of variable ChlF (qN), and the relative change of minimum ChlF (qO). P O refers to the dark-adapted state of a thylakoid membrane, qP, qN and qO characterise the light-adapted state. It is demonstrated that all other Chl FPs can be determined using this quartet of parameters. Moreover, three FPs related to the non-radiative energy dissipation within thylakoid membranes are evaluated, namely: the non-photochemical ChlF quenching (NPQ), the complete non-photochemical quenching of ChlF (qCN), and the effective quantum yield of non-photochemical processes in PS2 (N). New FPs, the total quenching of variable ChlF (qTV) and the absolute quenching of ChlF (qA) which allow to quantify co-action of the photochemical and non-photochemical processes during a light period are defined and analysed. The interpretation of Chl FPs and recommendations for their application in the photosynthesis research are also given. Some alternative FPs used in the laboratory practice have only an approximate character and can lead to incorrect conclusions if applied to stressed plants. They are reviewed and compared with the standard ones. All formulae and conclusions discussed herein are verified using experimental values obtained on young seedlings of the Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.).  相似文献
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Increased serum levels of resistin, a molecule secreted by fat cells, have been proposed as a possible mechanistic link between obesity and insulin resistance. To further investigate the effects of resistin on glucose metabolism, we derived a novel transgenic strain of spontaneously hypertensive rats expressing the mouse resistin gene under the control of the fat-specific aP2 promoter and also performed in vitro studies of the effects of recombinant resistin on glucose metabolism in isolated skeletal muscle. Expression of the resistin transgene was detected by Northern blot analysis in adipose tissue and by real-time PCR in skeletal muscle and was associated with increased serum fatty acids and muscle triglycerides, impaired skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, and glucose intolerance in the absence of any changes in serum resistin concentrations. In skeletal muscle isolated from non-transgenic spontaneously hypertensive rats, in vitro incubation with recombinant resistin significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glycogenesis and reduced glucose oxidation. These findings raise the possibility that autocrine effects of resistin in adipocytes, leading to release of other prodiabetic effector molecules from fat and/or paracrine actions of resistin secreted by adipocytes embedded within skeletal muscle, may contribute to the pathogenesis of disordered skeletal muscle glucose metabolism and impaired glucose tolerance.  相似文献
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The review summarizes basic information about slow and fast chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence induction kinetics (FIK) recorded using fluorimeters working on a principle of the pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) of a Chl fluorescence signal. It explains fundamental principles of the measuring technique, evaluates the terminology, symbols, and parameters used. Analysis of Chl FIK resulting in a set of Chl fluorescence parameters (FPs) provides qualitative and quantitative information about photosynthetic processes in chloroplasts. Using FPs, one can describe the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus under different internal and external conditions. Brief comments on proper application of the fluorimetric method in photosynthesis research and some actual examples are also given. This revised version was published online in June 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
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Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) produces nitric oxide (NO) which, after diffusing into vascular smooth muscle cells, activates guanylate cyclase leading to vasodilatation. A polymorphism (894G to T) in exon 7 of the eNOS gene causes the conversion of Glu to Asp in position 298. The recently described crystal structure of the heme domain of eNOS protein shows that Glu298 is fully solvent accessible and distant from regions integral to enzyme function. Searching for phenotypic expression of eNOS gene variants, we genotyped a group of patients with essential hypertension (H, n = 119) for the Glu298Asp polymorphism and compared them with age- and sex-matched healthy normals (N, n = 85). To specify phenotypic expression further, the hypertensive patients were subdivided into one group that responded well to regular antihypertensive therapy (CH, n = 45) and one group that was resistant to the therapy (RH, n = 74). Patients with BP higher than 140/90 mmHg when on adequate lifestyle modification and triple-combination therapy (including diuretics) were considered resistant. In RH and H groups, a significantly higher frequency of T alleles (P = 0.022 and P = 0.046, respectively) was found compared to normotonics (N). In well-controlled hypertonics, the same tendency was found, but did not reach statistical significance. The Glu298Asp polymorphism may contribute to the complex pathogenesis of essential hypertension and may be a factor in the resistance of these patients to conventional antihypertensive therapy. The presence of this allele may thus be predictive of the patients' therapeutic response.  相似文献
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Accelerated glycoxidation takes part in the development of diabetic complications. We determined advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in the sera of 52 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) - 18 with DM Type 1 and 34 with DM Type 2 and examined their relationship to the compensation of the disease. AGEs were estimated spectrofluorimetrically (350 nm/440 nm) whereas AOPP were determined spectro-photometrically (340 nm). AGEs were elevated only in DM Type 2 (DM2 5.11+/-1.15 x 10(3) AU/g vs controls 4.08+/-0.71 x 10(3) AU/g, p<0.001, vs DM1 4.14+/-0.86 x 10(3) AU/g, p<0.005, DM1 vs controls were not significant). AOPP were elevated significantly in both types of DM with higher levels in DM Type 2 (DM2 157.50+/-75.15 micromol/l vs healthy subjects 79.80+/-23.72 micromol/l, p<0.001, vs DM1 97.50+/-30.91 micromol/l, p<0.005, DM1 vs controls p<0.05). There was a tight correlation between AGEs and AOPP in both types of DM (DM1 r=0.75, DM2 r=0.47 (p<0.05)) and both AGEs and AOPP correlated with triglycerides. In DM Type 1 only, AGEs correlated with HbA1c r=0.47 (p<0.05) and with blood glucose. Slight but not significant differences in AGEs and AOPP levels were observed in patients with or without diabetic complications. Oxidative stress is increased in both types of DM, more in Type 2 where it contributes to the formation of glycoxidation products.  相似文献
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Phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) are involved in a number of signalling pathways regulating cell proliferation, membrane vesicle trafficking and defence responses in eukaryotic cells. Here we report that PLD and PA have a role in the process of polarised plant cell expansion as represented by pollen tube growth. Both phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate-dependent and independent PLD activities were identified in pollen tube extracts, and activity levels during pollen tube germination and growth were measured. PLD-mediated PA production in vivo can be blocked by primary alcohols, which serve as a substrate for the transphosphatidylation reaction. Both pollen germination and tube growth are stopped in the presence 0.5% 1-butanol, whereas secondary and tertiary isomers do not show any effect. This inhibition could be overcome by addition of exogenous PA-containing liposomes. In the absence of n-butanol, addition of a micromolar concentration of PA specifically stimulates pollen germination and tube elongation. Furthermore, a recently established link between PLD and microtubule dynamics was supported by taxol-mediated partial rescue of the 1-butanol-inhibited pollen tubes. The potential signalling role for PLD-derived PA in plant cell expansion is discussed.  相似文献
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Plant DNA flow cytometry and estimation of nuclear genome size   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23  
BACKGROUND: DNA flow cytometry describes the use of flow cytometry for estimation of DNA quantity in cell nuclei. The method involves preparation of aqueous suspensions of intact nuclei whose DNA is stained using a DNA fluorochrome. The nuclei are classified according to their relative fluorescence intensity or DNA content. Because the sample preparation and analysis is convenient and rapid, DNA flow cytometry has become a popular method for ploidy screening, detection of mixoploidy and aneuploidy, cell cycle analysis, assessment of the degree of polysomaty, determination of reproductive pathway, and estimation of absolute DNA amount or genome size. While the former applications are relatively straightforward, estimation of absolute DNA amount requires special attention to possible errors in sample preparation and analysis. SCOPE: The article reviews current procedures for estimation of absolute DNA amounts in plants using flow cytometry, with special emphasis on preparation of nuclei suspensions, stoichiometric DNA staining and the use of DNA reference standards. In addition, methodological pitfalls encountered in estimation of intraspecific variation in genome size are discussed as well as problems linked to the use of DNA flow cytometry for fieldwork. CONCLUSIONS: Reliable estimation of absolute DNA amounts in plants using flow cytometry is not a trivial task. Although several well-proven protocols are available and some factors controlling the precision and reproducibility have been identified, several problems persist: (1) the need for fresh tissues complicates the transfer of samples from field to the laboratory and/or their storage; (2) the role of cytosolic compounds interfering with quantitative DNA staining is not well understood; and (3) the use of a set of internationally agreed DNA reference standards still remains an unrealized goal.  相似文献
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