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1.
Gao G  Li Y  Zhang D  Gee S  Crosson C  Ma J 《FEBS letters》2001,489(2-3):270-276
Retinal levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), an angiogenic inhibitor, were measured and correlated with the ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization in rats. The retinas with neovascularization showed a 5-fold increase in VEGF while 2-fold decrease in PEDF, compared to the age-matched controls, resulting in an increased VEGF/PEDF ratio. The time course of the VEGF/PEDF ratio change correlated with the progression of retinal neovascularization. Changes in the VEGF and PEDF mRNAs preceded their protein level changes. These results suggest that an unbalance between angiogenic stimulators and inhibitors may contribute to retinal neovascularization.  相似文献
2.
Ceramide in the eukaryotic stress response   总被引:33,自引:0,他引:33  
Several extracellular agents and stress stimuli, such as tumour necrosis factor alpha, chemotherapeutic agents and heat, cause ceramide accumulation. They do this by regulating enzymes involved in its metabolism. Ceramide modulates a number of biochemical and cellular responses to stress, including apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest and cell senescence.  相似文献
3.
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from a Rhizobium phaseoli mutant, CE109, was isolated and compared with that of its wild-type parent, CE3. A previous report has shown that the mutant is defective in infection thread development, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows that it has an altered LPS (K. D. Noel, K. A. VandenBosch, and B. Kulpaca, J. Bacteriol. 168:1392-1462, 1986). Mild acid hydrolysis of the CE3 LPS released a polysaccharide and an oligosaccharide, PS1 and PS2, respectively. Mild acid hydrolysis of CE109 LPS released only an oligosaccharide. Chemical and immunochemical analyses showed that CE3-PS1 is the antigenic O chain of this strain and that CE109 LPS does not contain any of the major sugar components of CE3-PS1. CE109 oligosaccharide was identical in composition to CE3-PS2. The lipid A's from both strains were very similar in composition, with only minor quantitative variations. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of CE3 and CE109 LPSs showed that CE3 LPS separated into two bands, LPS I and LPS II, while CE109 had two bands which migrated to positions similar to that of LPS II. Immunoblotting with anti-CE3 antiserum showed that LPS I contains the antigenic O chain of CE3, PS1. Anti-CE109 antiserum interacted strongly with both CE109 LPS bands and CE3 LPS II and interacted weakly with CE3 LPS I. Mild-acid hydrolysis of CE3 LPS I, extracted from the polyacrylamide gel, showed that it contained both PS1 and PS2. The results in this report showed that CE109 LPS consists of only the lipid A core and is missing the antigenic O chain.  相似文献
4.
Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering   总被引:24,自引:0,他引:24  
Tissue engineering technology promises to solve the organ transplantation crisis. However, assembly of vascularized 3D soft organs remains a big challenge. Organ printing, which we define as computer-aided, jet-based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs, offers a possible solution. Organ printing involves three sequential steps: pre-processing or development of "blueprints" for organs; processing or actual organ printing; and postprocessing or organ conditioning and accelerated organ maturation. A cell printer that can print gels, single cells and cell aggregates has been developed. Layer-by-layer sequentially placed and solidified thin layers of a thermo-reversible gel could serve as "printing paper". Combination of an engineering approach with the developmental biology concept of embryonic tissue fluidity enables the creation of a new rapid prototyping 3D organ printing technology, which will dramatically accelerate and optimize tissue and organ assembly.  相似文献
5.
Ceramide in apoptosis: an overview and current perspectives   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23  
Recent years have witnessed significant advances in the understanding of the role of ceramide in apoptosis. This review summarizes these recent findings and discusses insights from studies of ceramide metabolism, topology, and effector actions. The recent identification of several genes for enzymes of ceramide metabolism, the development of mass spectrometric methods for ceramide analysis, and the increasing molecular and pharmacological tools to probe ceramide metabolism and function promise an accelerated phase in defining the molecular and biochemical details of the role of ceramide in apoptosis.  相似文献
6.
7.
A large part of the nutrient flux in deciduous forests is through fine root turnover, yet this process is seldom measured. As part of a nutrient cycling study, fine root dynamics were studied for two years at Huntington Forest in the Adirondack Mountain region of New York, USA. Root growth phenology was characterized using field rhizotrons, three methods were used to estimate fine root production, two methods were used to estimate fine root mortality, and decomposition was estimated using the buried bag technique. During both 1986 and 1987, fine root elongation began in early April, peaked during July and August, and nearly ceased by mid-October. Mean fine root ( 3 mm diameter) biomass in the surface 28-cm was 2.5 t ha–1 and necromass was 2.9 t ha–1. Annual decomposition rates ranged from 17 to 30% beneath the litter and 27 to 52% at a depth of 10 cm. Depending on the method used for estimation, fine root production ranged from 2.0 to 2.9 t ha–1, mortality ranged from 1.8 to 3.7 t ha–1 yr–1, and decomposition was 0.9 t ha–1 yr–1. Thus, turnover ranged from 0.8 to 1.2 yr–1. The nutrients that cycled through fine roots annually were 4.5–6.1 kg Ca, 1.1–1.4 kg Mg, 0.3–0.4 kg K, 1.2–1.7 kg P, 20.3–27.3 kg N, and 1.8–2.4 kg S ha–1. Fine root turnover was less important than leaf litterfall in the cycling of Ca and Mg and was similar to leaf litterfall in the amount of N, P, K and S cycled.  相似文献
8.
FATTY ACID ABNORMALITY IN ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY   总被引:20,自引:10,他引:10  
9.
G J Cole  R Akeson 《Neuron》1989,2(2):1157-1165
The neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) plays an integral role in cell interactions during neural development, with the binding of heparan sulfate proteoglycan to the amino-terminal region of N-CAM being required for N-CAM function. In the present study we have used synthetic peptides (HBD-1 and HBD-2), derived from the primary amino acid sequence of rat N-CAM, to identify the region of N-CAM that binds heparan sulfate. The 28 amino acid HBD-1 synthetic peptide was shown to bind both [3H]heparin and dissociated retinal cells. Retinal cells also attach to a substratum of HBD-2 peptide, but fail to bind to a control peptide containing a scrambled amino acid sequence of HBD-2. The HBD-2 peptide also inhibits retinal cell adhesion to N-CAM, demonstrating the physiological importance of the amino acid sequence encoded by the HBD peptide. These data therefore permit the localization of a heparin binding domain to a 17 amino acid region of immunoglobulin-like loop 2.  相似文献
10.
The outflow tract of the heart is recruited from a novel heart-forming field.   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
As classically described, the precardiac mesoderm of the paired heart-forming fields migrate and fuse anteriomedially in the ventral midline to form the first segment of the straight heart tube. This segment ultimately forms the right trabeculated ventricle. Additional segments are added to the caudal end of the first in a sequential fashion from the posteriolateral heart-forming field mesoderm. In this study we report that the final major heart segment, which forms the cardiac outflow tract, does not follow this pattern of embryonic development. The cardiac outlet, consisting of the conus and truncus, does not derive from the paired heart-forming fields, but originates separately from a previously unrecognized source of mesoderm located anterior to the initial primitive heart tube segment. Fate-mapping results show that cells labeled in the mesoderm surrounding the aortic sac and anterior to the primitive right ventricle are incorporated into both the conus and the truncus. Conversely, if cells are labeled in the existing right ventricle no incorporation into the cardiac outlet is observed. Tissue explants microdissected from this anterior mesoderm region are capable of forming beating cardiac muscle in vitro when cocultured with explants of the primitive right ventricle. These findings establish the presence of another heart-forming field. This anterior heart-forming field (AHF) consists of mesoderm surrounding the aortic sac immediately anterior to the existing heart tube. This new concept of the heart outlet's embryonic origin provides a new basis for explaining a variety of gene-expression patterns and cardiac defects described in both transgenic animals and human congenital heart disease.  相似文献
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