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1.
Massive loss of cardiac myocytes after myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cause of heart failure. The present study was designed to investigate the improvement of cardiac function in MI rats after embryonic stem (ES) cell transplantation. MI in rats was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Cultured ES cells used for cell transplantation were transfected with the marker green fluorescent protein (GFP). Animals in the treated group received intramyocardial injection of ES cells in injured myocardium. Compared with the MI control group injected with an equivalent volume of the cell-free medium, cardiac function in ES cell-implanted MI animals was significantly improved 6 wk after cell transplantation. The characteristic phenotype of engrafted ES cells was identified in implanted myocardium by strong positive staining to sarcomeric alpha-actin, cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain, and troponin I. GFP-positive cells in myocardium sectioned from MI hearts confirmed the survival and differentiation of engrafted cells. In addition, single cells isolated from cell-transplanted MI hearts showed rod-shaped GFP-positive myocytes with typical striations. The present data demonstrate that ES cell transplantation is a feasible and novel approach to improve ventricular function in infarcted failing hearts.  相似文献
2.
Recent trends in the biochemistry of surfactin   总被引:47,自引:0,他引:47  
The name surfactin refers to a bacterial cyclic lipopeptide, primarily renowned for its exceptional surfactant power since it lowers the surface tension of water from 72 mN m−1 to 27 mN m−1 at a concentration as low as 20 μM. Although surfactin was discovered about 30 years ago, there has been a revival of interest in this compound over the past decade, triggered by an increasing demand for effective biosurfactants for difficult contemporary ecological problems. This simple molecule also looks very promising as an antitumoral, antiviral and anti-Mycoplasma agent. Structural characteristics show the presence of a heptapeptide with an LLDLLDL chiral sequence linked, via a lactone bond, to a β-hydroxy fatty acid with 13–15 C atoms. In solution, the molecule exhibits a characteristic “horse saddle” conformation that accounts for its large spectrum of biological activity, making it very attractive for both industrial applications and academic studies. Surfactin biosynthesis is catalysed non-ribosomally by the action of a large multienzyme complex consisting of four modular building blocks, called the surfactin synthetase. The biosynthetic activity involves the multicarrier thiotemplate mechanism and the enzyme is organized in structural domains that place it in the family of peptide synthetases, a class of enzymes involved in peptidic secondary-metabolite synthesis. The srfA operon, the sfp gene encoding a 4′-phosphopantetheinyltransferase and the comA regulatory gene work together for surfactin biosynthesis, while the gene encoding the acyltransferase remains to be isolated. Concerning surfactin production, there is no indication whether the genetic regulation, involving a quorum-sensing mechanism, overrides other regulation factors promoted by the fermentation conditions. Knowledge of the modular arrangement of the peptide synthetases is of the utmost relevance to combinatorial biosynthetic approaches and has been successfully used at the gene level to modify the surfactin template. Biosynthetic and genetic rationales have been described for building variants. A fine study of the structure/function relationships associated with the three-dimensional structure has led to the recognition of the specific residues required for activity. These studies will assist researchers in the selection of molecules with improved and/or refined properties useful in oil and biomedical industries. Received: 9 October 1998 / Received revision: 29 January 1999 / Accepted: 31 January 1999  相似文献
3.
Root cells of four common legumes were found to remain susceptible to nodulation by rhizobia for only a short period of time. Delayed inoculation experiments conducted with these legume hosts indicated that the initially susceptible region of the root became progressively less susceptible if inoculations were delayed by a few hours. Profiles of the frequency of nodule formation relative to marks indicating the regions of root and root hair development at the time of inoculation indicated that nodulation of Vigna sinensis (L.) Endl. cv California Black Eye and Medicago sativa L. cvs Moapa and Vernal roots was inhibited just below the region that was most susceptible at the time of inoculation. This result suggests the existence of a fast-acting regulatory mechanism in these hosts that prevents overnodulation. Nodulation in white clover may occur in two distinct phases. In addition to the transient susceptibility of preemergent and developing root hair cells, there appeared to be an induced susceptibility of mature clover root hair cells. A cell-free bacterial exudate preparation from Rhizobium trifolii cells was found to render mature root hair cells of white clover more rapidly susceptible to nodulation.  相似文献
4.
Metabolic engineering for the microbial production of 1,3-propanediol   总被引:40,自引:0,他引:40  
Improvements in the biological production of 1,3-propanediol, a key component of an emerging polymer business, have been realized. Utilizing genes from natural strains that produce 1,3-propanediol from glycerol, metabolic engineering has enabled the development of a recombinant strain that utilizes the lower cost feedstock D-glucose. This accomplishment bodes well for future metabolic engineering efforts and, ultimately, for increased societal benefit obtained through the production of chemicals from renewable resources.  相似文献
5.
We have probed the structure of the C4 and V3 domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 by immunochemical techniques. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing an exposed gp120 sequence, (E/K)VGKAMYAPP, in C4 were differentially sensitive to denaturation of gp120, implying a conformational component to some of the epitopes. The MAbs recognizing conformation-sensitive C4 structures failed to bind to a gp120 mutant with an alteration in the sequence of the V3 loop, and their binding to gp120 was inhibited by both V3 and C4 MAbs. This implies an interaction between the V3 and C4 regions of gp120, which is supported by the observation that the binding of some MAbs to the V3 loop was often enhanced by amino acid changes in an around the C4 region.  相似文献
6.
We have analyzed a panel of eight murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that depend on the V2 domain for binding to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120. Each MAb is sensitive to amino acid changes within V2, and some are affected by substitutions elsewhere. With one exception, the MAbs were not reactive with peptides from the V2 region, or only poorly so. Hence their ability to bind recombinant strain IIIB gp120 depended on the preservation of native structure. Three MAbs cross-reacted with strain RF gp120, but only one cross-reacted with MN gp120, and none bound SF-2 gp120. Four MAbs neutralized HIV-1 IIIB with various potencies, and the one able to bind MN gp120 neutralized that virus. Peptide serology indicated that antibodies cross-reactive with the HxB2 V1 and V2 regions are rarely present in HIV-1-positive sera, but the relatively conserved segment between the V1 and V2 loops was recognized by antibodies in a significant fraction of sera. Antibodies able to block the binding of V2 MAbs to IIIB or MN gp120 rarely exist in sera from HIV-1-infected humans; more common in these sera are antibodies that enhance the binding of V2 MAbs to gp120. This enhancement effect of HIV-1-positive sera can be mimicked by several human MAbs to different discontinuous gp120 epitopes. Soluble CD4 enhanced binding of one V2 MAb to oligomeric gp120 but not to monomeric gp120, perhaps by inducing conformational changes in the oligomer.  相似文献
7.
Coordinated development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies   总被引:36,自引:0,他引:36  
For the first time, a single source of cellulosic biomass was pretreated by leading technologies using identical analytical methods to provide comparative performance data. In particular, ammonia explosion, aqueous ammonia recycle, controlled pH, dilute acid, flowthrough, and lime approaches were applied to prepare corn stover for subsequent biological conversion to sugars through a Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI) among Auburn University, Dartmouth College, Michigan State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Purdue University, and Texas A&M University. An Agricultural and Industrial Advisory Board provided guidance to the project. Pretreatment conditions were selected based on the extensive experience of the team with each of the technologies, and the resulting fluid and solid streams were characterized using standard methods. The data were used to close material balances, and energy balances were estimated for all processes. The digestibilities of the solids by a controlled supply of cellulase enzyme and the fermentability of the liquids were also assessed and used to guide selection of optimum pretreatment conditions. Economic assessments were applied based on the performance data to estimate each pretreatment cost on a consistent basis. Through this approach, comparative data were developed on sugar recovery from hemicellulose and cellulose by the combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis operations when applied to corn stover. This paper introduces the project and summarizes the shared methods for papers reporting results of this research in this special edition of Bioresource Technology.  相似文献
8.
Mechanisms underlying the impacts of exotic plant invasions   总被引:35,自引:0,他引:35  
Although the impacts of exotic plant invasions on community structure and ecosystem processes are well appreciated, the pathways or mechanisms that underlie these impacts are poorly understood. Better exploration of these processes is essential to understanding why exotic plants impact only certain systems, and why only some invaders have large impacts. Here, we review over 150 studies to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the impacts of exotic plant invasions on plant and animal community structure, nutrient cycling, hydrology and fire regimes. We find that, while numerous studies have examined the impacts of invasions on plant diversity and composition, less than 5% test whether these effects arise through competition, allelopathy, alteration of ecosystem variables or other processes. Nonetheless, competition was often hypothesized, and nearly all studies competing native and alien plants against each other found strong competitive effects of exotic species. In contrast to studies of the impacts on plant community structure and higher trophic levels, research examining impacts on nitrogen cycling, hydrology and fire regimes is generally highly mechanistic, often motivated by specific invader traits. We encourage future studies that link impacts on community structure to ecosystem processes, and relate the controls over invasibility to the controls over impact.  相似文献
9.
A number of linear and conformation-dependent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been mapped to the first and second variable (V1 and V2) domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120. The majority of these MAbs are as effective at neutralizing HIV-1 infectivity as MAbs to the V3 domain and the CD4 binding site. The linear MAbs bind to amino acid residues 162 to 171, and changes at residues 183/184 (PI/SG) and 191/192/193 (YSL/GSS) within the V2 domain abrogate the binding of the two conformation-dependent MAbs, 11/68b and CRA-4, respectively. Surprisingly, a change at residue 435 (Y/H or Y/S), in a region of gp120 near the CD4 binding site (M. Kowalski, J. Potz, L. Basiripour, T. Dorfman, W. C. Goh, E. Terwilliger, A. Dayton, C. Rosen, W. Haseltine, and J. Sodroski, Science 237:1351-1355, 1987; L. A. Lasky, G. M. Nakamura, D. H. Smith, C. Fennie, C. Shimasaki, E. Patzer, P. Berman, T. Gregory, and D. Capon, Cell 50:975-985, 1987; and U. Olshevsky, E. Helseth, C. Furman, J. Li, W. Haseltine, and J. Sodroski, J. Virol. 64:5701-5707, 1990), abrogated gp120 recognition by both of the conformation-dependent MAbs. However, both MAbs 11/68b and CRA-4 were able to bind to HIV-1 V1V2 chimeric fusion proteins expressing the V1V2 domains in the absence of C4, suggesting that residues in C4 are not components of the epitopes but that amino acid changes in C4 may affect the structure of the V1V2 domains. This is consistent with the ability of soluble CD4 to block 11/68b and CRA-4 binding to both native cell surface-expressed gp120 and recombinant gp120 and suggests that the binding of the neutralizing MAbs to the virus occurs prior to receptor interaction. Since the reciprocal inhibition, i.e., antibody inhibition of CD4-gp120 binding, was not observed, the mechanism of neutralization is probably not a blockade of virus-receptor interaction. Finally, we demonstrate that linear sequences from the V2 region are immunogenic in HIV-1-infected individuals, suggesting that the primary neutralizing response may be directed to both V2 and V3 epitopes.  相似文献
10.
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