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Abstract: A rapid and simple procedure is presented to obtain nearly pure populations of human neuron-like cells from the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. Sequential exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in serum-free medium yields homogeneous populations of cells with neuronal morphology, avoiding the presence of other neural crest derivatives that would normally arise from those cells. Cells are withdrawn from the cell cycle, as shown by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine uptake and retinoblastoma hypophosphorylation. Cell survival is dependent on the continuous presence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and removal of this neurotrophin causes apoptotic cell death accompanied by an attempt to reenter the cell cycle. Differentiated cells express neuronal markers, including neurofilaments, neuron-specific enolase, and growth-associated protein-43 as well as neuronal polarity markers such as tau and microtubule-associated protein 2. Moreover, differentiated cultures do not contain glial cells, as could be evidenced after the negative staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein. In conclusion, the protocol presented herein yields homogeneous populations of human neuronal differentiated cells that present many of the characteristics of primary cultures of neurons. This model may be useful to perform large-scale biochemical and molecular studies due to its susceptibility to genetic manipulation and the availability of an unlimited amount of cells.  相似文献
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A physical context for gelatinous zooplankton aggregations: a review   总被引:23,自引:5,他引:18  
The magnitude and extent of jellyfish blooms are influenced not only by the biology and behavior of the animal, but also by the geographic setting and physical environment. Hydrography alone is often thought to cause or favor gelatinous zooplankton aggregations, however, it is clear that interactions between biology of the animal and physics of the water are very important sources of population variations, especially at local scales. We summarize the role of physical processes and phenomena that promote aggregations of gelatinous zooplankton. We have identified and discussed a suite of physical gradients that can be perceived by gelatinous zooplankton. These include light, gravity, temperature, salinity, pressure and turbulence. A recurring theme is accumulation of jellyfish around physical discontinuities such as fronts (shelf-break, upwelling, tidal and estuarine) and pycnoclines (thermoclines and haloclines). Interestingly, there are few data to suggest that large-scale, quasi-stationary features, such as the largest oceanic fronts, serve to physically aggregate gelatinous animals at a similar scale. Rather, examples of local aggregations appear to dominate the literature. We also discuss various jellyfish behaviors that are theorized to promote aggregation, feeding and reproduction in relation to physical discontinuities.  相似文献
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Chromosomal rearrangements can promote reproductive isolation by reducing recombination along a large section of the genome. We model the effects of the genetic barrier to gene flow caused by a chromosomal rearrangement on the rate of accumulation of postzygotic isolation genes in parapatry. We find that, if reproductive isolation is produced by the accumulation in parapatry of sets of alleles compatible within but incompatible across species, chromosomal rearrangements are far more likely to favor it than classical genetic barriers without chromosomal changes. New evidence of the role of chromosomal rearrangements in parapatric speciation suggests that postzygotic isolation is often due to the accumulation of such incompatibilities. The model makes testable qualitative predictions about the genetic signature of speciation.  相似文献
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European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern   总被引:20,自引:0,他引:20  
《Global Change Biology》2006,12(10):1969-1976
Global climate change impacts can already be tracked in many physical and biological systems; in particular, terrestrial ecosystems provide a consistent picture of observed changes. One of the preferred indicators is phenology, the science of natural recurring events, as their recorded dates provide a high-temporal resolution of ongoing changes. Thus, numerous analyses have demonstrated an earlier onset of spring events for mid and higher latitudes and a lengthening of the growing season. However, published single-site or single-species studies are particularly open to suspicion of being biased towards predominantly reporting climate change-induced impacts. No comprehensive study or meta-analysis has so far examined the possible lack of evidence for changes or shifts at sites where no temperature change is observed. We used an enormous systematic phenological network data set of more than 125 000 observational series of 542 plant and 19 animal species in 21 European countries (1971–2000). Our results showed that 78% of all leafing, flowering and fruiting records advanced (30% significantly) and only 3% were significantly delayed, whereas the signal of leaf colouring/fall is ambiguous. We conclude that previously published results of phenological changes were not biased by reporting or publication predisposition: the average advance of spring/summer was 2.5 days decade−1 in Europe. Our analysis of 254 mean national time series undoubtedly demonstrates that species' phenology is responsive to temperature of the preceding months (mean advance of spring/summer by 2.5 days°C−1, delay of leaf colouring and fall by 1.0 day°C−1). The pattern of observed change in spring efficiently matches measured national warming across 19 European countries (correlation coefficient r =−0.69, P <0.001).  相似文献
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Anxiety disorders are complex and common psychiatric illnesses associated with considerable morbidity and social cost. We have studied the molecular basis of the cooccurrence of panic and phobic disorders with joint laxity. We have identified an interstitial duplication of human chromosome 15q24-26 (named DUP25), which is significantly associated with panic/agoraphobia/social phobia/joint laxity in families, and with panic disorder in nonfamilial cases. Mosaicism, different forms of DUP25 within the same family, and absence of segregation of 15q24-26 markers with DUP25 and the psychiatric phenotypes suggest a non-Mendelian mechanism of disease-causing mutation. We propose that DUP25, which is present in 7% control subjects, is a susceptibility factor for a clinical phenotype that includes panic and phobic disorders and joint laxity.  相似文献
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