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Flavonoids represent a group of phytochemicals exhibiting a wide range of biological activities arising mainly from their antioxidant properties and ability to modulate several enzymes or cell receptors. Flavonoids have been recognized to exert anti-bacterial and anti-viral activity, anti-inflammatory, anti-angionic, analgesic, anti-allergic effects, hepatoprotective, cytostatic, apoptotic, estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties. However, not all flavonoids and their actions are necessarily beneficial. Some flavonoids have mutagenic and/or prooxidant effects and can also interfere with essential biochemical pathways. Among the proteins that interact with flavonoids, cytochromes P450 (CYPs), monooxygenases metabolizing xenobiotics (e.g. drugs, carcinogens) and endogenous substrates (e.g. steroids), play a prominent role. Flavonoid compounds influence these enzymes in several ways: flavonoids induce the expression of several CYPs and modulate (inhibit or stimulate) their metabolic activity. In addition, some CYPs participate in metabolism of flavonoids. Flavonoids enhance activation of carcinogens and/or influence the metabolism of drugs via induction of specific CYPs. On the other hand, inhibition of CYPs involved in carcinogen activation and scavenging reactive species formed from carcinogens by CYP-mediated reactions can be beneficial properties of various flavonoids. Flavonoids show an estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity owing to the structural similarity with the estrogen skeleton. Mimicking natural estrogens, they bind to estrogen receptor and modulate its activity. They also block CYP19, a crucial enzyme involved in estrogen biosynthesis. Flavonoids in human diet may reduce the risk of various cancers, especially hormone-dependent breast and prostate cancers, as well preventing menopausal symptoms. For these reasons the structure-function relationship of flavonoids is extensively studied to provide an inspiration for a rational drug and/or chemopreventive agent design of future pharmaceuticals.  相似文献
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The biogeography of naturalization in alien plants   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
Aim  This paper reviews the main geographical determinants of naturalization in plants.
Location  Global.
Methods  Comparative studies of large data sets of alien floras are the main source of information on global patterns of naturalization.
Results  Temperate mainland regions are more invaded than tropical mainland regions but there seems to be no difference in invasibility of temperate and tropical islands. Islands are more invaded than the mainland. The number of naturalized species in temperate regions decreases with latitude and their geographical ranges increase with latitude. The number of naturalized species on islands increases with temperature. Naturalized species contribute to floristic homogenization, but the phenomenon is scale-dependent.
Main conclusions  Some robust patterns are evident from currently available data, but further research is needed on several aspects to advance our understanding of the biogeography of naturalization of alien plants. For example, measures of propagule pressure are needed to determine the invasibility of communities/ecosystems/regions. The patterns discussed in this paper are derived largely from numbers and proportions of naturalized species, and little is known about the proportion of introduced species that become naturalized. Further insights on naturalization rates, i.e. the proportion of aliens that successfully naturalize within regions, and on geographical and other determinants of its variation would provide us with better understanding of the invasion process. Comparative studies, and resulting generalizations, are almost exclusively based on numbers of species, but alien species differ in their impact on native biodiversity and ecosystem processes.  相似文献
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Lizards of the family Eublepharidae exhibit interspecific diversity in body size, sexual size dimorphism (SSD), head size dimorphism (HSD), occurrence of male combat, and presence of male precloacal pores. Hence, they offer an opportunity for testing hypotheses for the evolution and maintenance of sexual dimorphism. Historical analysis of male agonistic behaviour indicates that territoriality is ancestral in eublepharid geckos. Within Eublepharidae, male combat disappeared twice. In keeping with predictions from sexual selection theory, both events were associated with parallel loss of male-biased HSD and ventral scent glands. Eublepharids therefore provide new evidence that male-biased dimorphic heads are weapons used in aggressive encounters and that the ventral glands probably function in territory marking rather than in intersexual communication. Male-biased SSD is a plesiomorphic characteristic and was affected by at least three inversions. Shifts in SSD and male combat were not historically correlated. Therefore, other factors than male rivalry appear responsible for SSD inversions. Eublepharids demonstrate the full scope of Rensch's rule (small species tend to be female-larger, larger species male-larger). Most plausibly, SSD pattern hence seems to reflect body size variation. © 2002 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2002, 76 , 303–314.  相似文献
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We established two independent experiments to estimate the ecological consequences of artificial severing on ramets of the competitively strong perennial grass Calamagrostis epigejos. We compared the responses of mature ramets of different size growing in different environments. Finally, we tested whether the response of young ramets to the severing depends on the density of surrounding vegetation.Severing decreased biomass and number of rhizomes of young ramets but did not affect their competitive tolerance. It decreased survival of mature ramets (probably due to traumata caused by cutting attached rhizomes) but did not influence total biomass of survived ramets. The response of total biomass of mature ramets to severing changed with size of the ramets. Further, biomass allocation to rhizomes changed differently after ramet severing in the two environments.The results suggest that field grown young ramets of Calamagrostis benefit from physiological integration. In contrast, mature ramets seem to be independent units according to the resource economy. Ecological benefits of integration depended on size of ramet clumps: ramets in clump had larger survival probability than control ramets. They also depended on environmental conditions: severing increased formation of new rhizomes at a sand dune subsrate, but it had a negative effect on plants in the forest experimental site. This intra-specific variation should be taken into account when trying to explain ecological patterns of integration benefits of clonal plants.  相似文献
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Extrapair fertilizations (EPFs) are frequently documented insongbirds; however, the extent to which this reproductive tacticcontributes to variance in male reproductive success and hencethe strength of sexual selection on males remains little studied.Using 2 approaches, intraspecific and comparative, we test thehypothesis that the contribution of EPFs to variance in malefitness increases with migration distance in north temperatesongbirds. Using data on the genetic mating system of the scarletrosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus, a long-distance migrant, weshow that the number of extrapair mates and within-pair paternityare the most important components of variance in male reproductivesuccess. There was no evidence of a trade-off between extrapairand within-pair success of individual males as males successfulin procuring EPFs were less likely to be cuckolded. Comparativedata reveal that the opportunity for sexual selection due toEPFs is positively associated with both migration distance andbreeding synchrony in north temperate passerines, and we discussseveral mechanisms that could extend these relationships. Ingeneral, these data suggest that EPFs have a potential to playan important role in the evolution of sexually selected traitsin long-distance migratory songbirds such as rosefinches.  相似文献
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