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1.
DnaSP, DNA polymorphism analyses by the coalescent and other methods   总被引:155,自引:0,他引:155  
SUMMARY: DnaSP is a software package for the analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Present version introduces several new modules and features which, among other options allow: (1) handling big data sets (approximately 5 Mb per sequence); (2) conducting a large number of coalescent-based tests by Monte Carlo computer simulations; (3) extensive analyses of the genetic differentiation and gene flow among populations; (4) analysing the evolutionary pattern of preferred and unpreferred codons; (5) generating graphical outputs for an easy visualization of results. AVAILABILITY: The software package, including complete documentation and examples, is freely available to academic users from: http://www.ub.es/dnasp  相似文献
2.
SUMMARY: DnaSP is a Windows integrated software package for the analysis of the DNA polymorphism from nucleotide sequence data. DnaSP version 3 incorporates several methods for estimating the amount and pattern of DNA polymorphism and divergence, and for conducting neutrality tests. AVAILABILITY: For academic uses, DnaSP is available free of charge from: http://www.bio.ub.es/julio/DnaSP.html CONTACT: julio@porthos.bio.ub.es  相似文献
3.
Sequencing of multiple recombinant clones generated from polymerase chain reaction-amplified products demonstrated that the degree of heterogeneity of two well-conserved regions of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome within individual plasma samples from a single patient was consistent with a quasispecies structure of HCV genomic RNA. About half of circulating RNA molecules were identical, while the remaining consisted of a spectrum of mutants differing from each other in one to four nucleotides. Mutant sequence diversity ranged from silent mutations to appearance of in-frame stop codons and included both conservative and nonconservative amino acid substitutions. From the relative proportion of essentially defective sequences, we estimated that most circulating particles should contain defective genomes. These observations might have important implications in the physiopathology of HCV infection and underline the need for a population-based approach when one is analyzing HCV genomes.  相似文献
4.
Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is a disease of nursery and fattening pigs characterized by growth retardation, paleness of the skin, dyspnea, and increased mortality rates. Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) has been demonstrated to be the cause of PMWS. However, other factors are needed for full development of the syndrome, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection has been suggested to be one of them. Twenty-four conventional 5-week-old pigs were distributed in four groups: control (n = 5), PRRSV inoculated (n = 5), PCV2 inoculated (n = 7), and PRRSV and PCV2 inoculated (n = 7). The two groups inoculated with PRRSV showed growth retardation. Pigs inoculated with both PRRSV and PCV2 had increased rectal temperature. One of these pigs developed wasting, had severe respiratory distress, and died. The most important microscopic lesion in pigs inoculated with PCV2 was lymphocyte depletion with histiocytic infiltration of the lymphoid organs, more severe and in a wider range of tissues in doubly inoculated pigs. Interstitial pneumonia was observed in the three inoculated groups. PCV2 nucleic acid was found by in situ hybridization in larger amounts and in a wider range of lymphoid tissues in PRRSV- and PCV2-inoculated than in PCV2-inoculated pigs. TaqMan PCR was performed to quantify the PCV2 loads in serum during the experiment. PCV2 loads were higher in doubly inoculated pigs than in pigs inoculated with PCV2 alone. These findings indicate that severe disease can be reproduced in conventional 5-week-old pigs by inoculation of PRRSV and PCV2. Moreover, these results support the hypothesis that PRRSV infection enhances PCV2 replication.  相似文献
5.
In many cells and specially in muscle, mitochondria form elongated filaments or a branched reticulum. We show that Mfn2 (mitofusin 2), a mitochondrial membrane protein that participates in mitochondrial fusion in mammalian cells, is induced during myogenesis and contributes to the maintenance and operation of the mitochondrial network. Repression of Mfn2 caused morphological and functional fragmentation of the mitochondrial network into independent clusters. Concomitantly, repression of Mfn2 reduced glucose oxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell respiration, and mitochondrial proton leak. We also show that the Mfn2-dependent mechanism of mitochondrial control is disturbed in obesity by reduced Mfn2 expression. In all, our data indicate that Mfn2 expression is crucial in mitochondrial metabolism through the maintenance of the mitochondrial network architecture, and reduced Mfn2 expression may explain some of the metabolic alterations associated with obesity.  相似文献
6.
7.
Very small eukaryotic organisms (picoeukaryotes) are fundamental components of marine planktonic systems, often accounting for a significant fraction of the biomass and activity in a system. Their identity, however, has remained elusive, since the small cells lack morphological features for identification. We determined the diversity of marine picoeukaryotes by sequencing cloned 18S rRNA genes in five genetic libraries from North Atlantic, Southern Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea surface waters. Picoplankton were obtained by filter size fractionation, a step that excluded most large eukaryotes and recovered most picoeukaryotes. Genetic libraries of eukaryotic ribosomal DNA were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and at least one clone of each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was partially sequenced. In general, the phylogenetic diversity in each library was rather great, and each library included many different OTUs and members of very distantly related phylogenetic groups. Of 225 eukaryotic clones, 126 were affiliated with algal classes, especially the Prasinophyceae, the Prymnesiophyceae, the Bacillariophyceae, and the Dinophyceae. A minor fraction (27 clones) was affiliated with clearly heterotrophic organisms, such as ciliates, the chrysomonad Paraphysomonas, cercomonads, and fungi. There were two relatively abundant novel lineages, novel stramenopiles (53 clones) and novel alveolates (19 clones). These lineages are very different from any organism that has been isolated, suggesting that there are previously unknown picoeukaryotes. Prasinophytes and novel stramenopile clones were very abundant in all of the libraries analyzed. These findings underscore the importance of attempts to grow the small eukaryotic plankton in pure culture.  相似文献
8.
Regulation of E-cadherin/Catenin association by tyrosine phosphorylation   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28  
Alteration of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion is frequently associated to tyrosine phosphorylation of p120- and beta-catenins. We have examined the role of this modification in these proteins in the control of beta-catenin/E-cadherin binding using in vitro assays with recombinant proteins. Recombinant pp60(c-src) efficiently phosphorylated both catenins in vitro, with stoichiometries of 1.5 and 2.0 mol of phosphate/mol of protein for beta-catenin and p120-catenin, respectively. pp60(c-src) phosphorylation had opposing effects on the affinities of beta-catenin and p120 for the cytosolic domain of E-cadherin; it decreased (in the case of beta-catenin) or increased (for p120) catenin/E-cadherin binding. However, a role for p120-catenin in the modulation of beta-catenin/E-cadherin binding was not observed, since addition of phosphorylated p120-catenin did not modify the affinity of phosphorylated (or unphosphorylated) beta-catenin for E-cadherin. The phosphorylated Tyr residues were identified as Tyr-86 and Tyr-654. Experiments using point mutants in these two residues indicated that, although Tyr-86 was a better substrate for pp60(c-src), only modification of Tyr-654 was relevant for the interaction with E-cadherin. Transient transfections of different mutants demonstrated that Tyr-654 is phosphorylated in conditions in which adherens junctions are disrupted and evidenced that binding of beta-catenin to E-cadherin in vivo is controlled by phosphorylation of beta-catenin Tyr-654.  相似文献
9.
D Kizis  V Lumbreras  M Pagès 《FEBS letters》2001,498(2-3):187-189
Crop plants are exposed to many types of abiotic stress during their life cycle. Water deficit derived from drought, low temperature or high salt concentration in the soil, is one of the most common environmental stresses that affects growth and development of plants through alterations in metabolism and gene expression. Adaptation to these conditions may involve passive tolerance or active homeostatic mechanisms for maintaining water balance. Active responses occur at different levels in the plant and may represent a concomitant protection against other types of stress such as pathogen attack. Many morphological and physiological adaptations to water stress are under the control of the plant hormone abscisic acid and involve specific activation of target genes that in one way or another protect cells against water deficit or participate in the regulation of the drought response. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of drought adaptation mediated by specific changes in gene expression and the role of AP2/EREBP nuclear factors in these processes.  相似文献
10.
Ribosomal gene sequence data are used to explore phylogenetic relationships among higher arthropod groups. Sequences of 139 taxa (23 outgroup and 116 ingroup taxa) representing all extant arthropod "classes" except Remipedia and Cephalocarida are analyzed using direct character optimization exploring six parameter sets. Parameter choice appears to be crucial to phylogenetic inference. The high level of sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rRNA gene (sequence length from 1350 to 2700 bp) makes placement of certain taxa with "unusual" sequences difficult and underscores the necessity of combining ribosomal gene data with other sources of information. Monophyly of Pycnogonida, Chelicerata, Chilopoda, Chilognatha, Malacostraca, Branchiopoda (excluding Daphnia ), and Ectognatha are among the higher groups that are supported in most of the analyses. The positions of the Pauropoda, Symphyla, Protura, Collembola, Diplura, Onychophora, Tardigrada, and Daphnia are unstable throughout the parameter space examined.  相似文献
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