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1.
Lipid peroxidation often occurs in response to oxidative stress, and a great diversity of aldehydes are formed when lipid hydroperoxides break down in biological systems. Some of these aldehydes are highly reactive and may be considered as second toxic messengers which disseminate and augment initial free radical events. The aldehydes most intensively studied so far are 4-hydroxynonenal, 4-hydroxyhexenal, and malonaldehyde. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary on the chemical properties of these aldehydes, the mechanisms of their formation and their occurrence in biological systems and methods for their determination. We will also review the reactions of 4-hydroxyalkenals and malonaldehyde with biomolecules (amino acids, proteins, nucleic acid bases), their metabolism in isolated cells and excretion in whole animals, as well as the many types of biological activities described so far, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, chemotactic activity, and effects on cell proliferation and gene expression. Structurally related compounds, such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and other 2-alkenals are also briefly discussed, since they have some properties in common with 4-hydroxyalkenals.  相似文献
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cdc28-1N is a conditional allele that has normal G1 (Start) function but confers a mitotic defect. We have isolated seven genes that in high dosage suppress the growth defect of cdc28-1N cells but not of Start-defective cdc28-4 cells. Three of these (CLB1, CLB2, and CLB4) encode proteins strongly homologous to G2-specific B-type cyclins. Another gene, CLB3, was cloned using PCR, CLB1 and CLB2 encode a pair of closely related proteins; CLB3 and CLB4 encode a second pair. Neither CLB1 nor CLB2 is essential; however, disruption of both is lethal and causes a mitotic defect. Furthermore, the double mutant cdc28-1N clb2::LEU2 is nonviable, whereas cdc28-4 clb2::LEU2 is viable, suggesting that the cdc28-1N protein may be defective in its interaction with B-type cyclins. Our results are consistent with CDC28 function being required in both G1 and mitosis. Its mitotic role, we believe, involves interaction with a family of at least four G2-specific cyclins.  相似文献
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J Boyes  A Bird 《Cell》1991,64(6):1123-1134
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Structure and function of laminin: anatomy of a multidomain glycoprotein   总被引:53,自引:0,他引:53  
Laminin is a large (900 kDa) mosaic protein composed of many distinct domains with different structures and functions. Globular and rodlike domains are arranged in an extended four-armed, cruciform shape that is well suited for mediating between distant sites on cells and other components of the extracellular matrix. The alpha-helical coiled-coil domain of the long arm is involved in the specific assembly of the three chains (A, B1, B2, and possible variants) of laminin and is the only domain composed of multiple chains. It is terminated by a large globular domain composed of five homologous subdomains formed by the COOH-terminal part of the A chain. Sites for receptor-mediated cell attachment and promotion of neurite outgrowth reside in the terminal region of the long arm. A second cell attachment site, a cell signaling site with mitogenic action, binding sites for the closely associated glycoprotein nidogen/entactin, and regions involved in calcium-dependent aggregation are localized in the short arms. These domains, which to a large extent are composed of Cys-rich repeats with limited homology to EGF, are the most highly conserved regions in laminins of different origin. At present, most structural and functional data have been collected for a laminin expressed by a mouse tumor, which can be readily isolated in native form and dissected into functional fragments by limited proteolysis. Increasing information on laminins from different species and tissues demonstrates considerable variations of structure. Isoforms of laminin assembled from different chains are focally and transiently expressed and may serve distinct functions at early stages of development even before being laid down as major components of basement membranes.  相似文献
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Cyanobacterial dominance in lakes   总被引:51,自引:12,他引:39  
Cyanobacterial dominance in lakes has received much attention in the past because of frequent bloom formation in lakes of higher trophic levels. In this paper, underlying mechanisms of cyanobacterial dominance are analyzed and discussed using both original and literature data from various shallow mixed and deep stratifying lakes from temperate and (sub)tropical regions. Examples include all four ecotypes of cyanobacteria sensu Mur et al. (1993), because their behavior in the water column is entirely different. Colony forming species (Microcystis) are exemplified from the large shallow Tai Hu, China. Data from a shallow urban lake, Alte Donau in Austria are used to characterize well mixed species (Cylindrospermopsis), while stratifying species (Planktothrix) are analyzed from the deep alpine lake Mondsee. Nitrogen fixing species (Aphanizomenon) are typified from a shallow river-run lake in Germany. Factors causing the dominance of one or the other group are often difficult to reveal because several interacting factors are usually involved which are not necessarily the same in different environments. Strategies for restoration, therefore, depend on both the cyanobacterial species involved and the specific causing situation. Some uncertainty about the success of correctives, however, will remain due to the stochastic nature of the events and pathways leading to cyanobacterial blooms. Truly integrated research programs are required to generate predictive models capable of quantifying key variables at appropriate spatial and temporal scales.  相似文献
10.
Cleavage of cohesin by the CD clan protease separin triggers anaphase in yeast   总被引:50,自引:0,他引:50  
Uhlmann F  Wernic D  Poupart MA  Koonin EV  Nasmyth K 《Cell》2000,103(3):375-386
In eukaryotic cells, replicated DNA strands remain physically connected until their segregation to opposite poles of the cell during anaphase. This "sister chromatid cohesion" is essential for the alignment of chromosomes on the mitotic spindle during metaphase. Cohesion depends on the multisubunit cohesin complex, which possibly forms the physical bridges connecting sisters. Proteolytic cleavage of cohesin's Sccl subunit at the metaphase to anaphase transition is essential for sister chromatid separation and depends on a conserved protein called separin. We show here that separin is a cysteine protease related to caspases that alone can cleave Sccl in vitro. Cleavage of Sccl in metaphase arrested cells is sufficient to trigger the separation of sister chromatids and their segregation to opposite cell poles.  相似文献
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