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1.
This paper analyses the dependence of the first spring arrival dates of short/medium- and long-distance migrant bird species on climate warming in eastern Europe. The timing of arrival of the selected species at the observation site correlates with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, precipitation and wind characteristics. A positive correlation of fluctuations in winter and spring air temperatures with variations in the NAO index has been established in eastern Europe. Positive winter NAO index values are related to earlier spring arrival of birds in the eastern Baltic region and vice versa—arrival is late when the NAO index is negative. The impact of climate warming on the bird’s life cycle depends on local or regional climate characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that differences in climate indices between North Africa and Europe can influence the timing of spring arrival. Our results support the hypothesis that differences in first spring arrival dates between European populations occur after individuals cross the Sahara. We assume that the endogenous programme of migration control in short/medium-distance migrants synchronises with the changing environment on their wintering grounds and along their migration routes, whereas in long-distance migrants it is rather with environmental changes in the second part of their migratory route in Europe. Our results strongly indicate that the mechanism of dynamic balance in the interaction between the endogenous regulatory programme and environmental factors determines the pattern of spring arrival, as well as migration timing.  相似文献
2.
In this paper an overview is given of earlier work on transport, deposition AND transformation of suspended matter, and contaminants (metals, hydrocarbons) in Lithuanian coastal waters as well as in other parts of the Baltic Sea. The Lithuanian river Nemunas dischargesc. 600.106 kg suspended matter into the Kuršių Marios Lagoon annually, of which two thirds are accumulated in the lagoon. The remainder is exported to the Baltic Sea through the Klaipéda Strait influencing biological activity in the coastal zone. Sedimentation rate in Kuršių Marios Lagoon is estimated at 3.2 mm y−1. In the last 50 years the surface area of the lagoon decreased by 0.7 km2 y−1. Concentration profiles of metals and hydrocarbons were measured in the Kuršių Marios Lagoon, the Baltic proper, and in the Gulf of Finland. Among hydrocarbons both anthropogenic and compounds from natural sources are present. It is argued that correct interpretation of concentration horizons in sediment may be hampered by various processes,e. g. early sedimentogenesis and diagenesis, and cyclic salinity changes in the Baltic Sea.  相似文献
3.
Otolith Sr:Ca ratios were examined to evaluate the contribution of the stocked eel Anguilla anguilla elvers, which have been stocked in Lithuanian waters and mixed with naturally recruited eels for several decades, to the native eel population. Stocked eels were identified by the freshwater signature (Sr:Ca ratios <2·24 × 10−3) on the otolith after the glass eel stage. Naturally recruited eels, that had migrated through the North and Baltic Seas, were characterized by an extended seawater and brackish-water signature (Sr:Ca ratios >3·23 × 10−3) after the glass eel stage. Of 108 eels analysed, 21 eels had otolith Sr:Ca ratio profiles consistent with stocking while 87 showed patterns of natural recruitment. The ages of naturally recruited eels arriving in Lithuanian fresh waters varied from 1 to 10 years, with a mean ±  s.d . age of 5·2 ± 2·1 years. Eels from the inland Lake Baluošai were all freshwater residents of stocked origin. Stocked eels, however, accounted for only 20% of the eels from the Curonian Lagoon and 2% of eels sampled in Baltic coastal waters. This finding does not support the hypothesis that the eel fishery in the Curonian Lagoon depends mostly on stocking.  相似文献
4.
The responses of invasive and native species of crayfish to conspecific and heterospecific alarm odors were recorded in the laboratory. Individuals of the North American invasive Procambarus clarkii responded just as strongly to odors from crushed Austropotomobius pallipes as they did to crushed conspecifics. The North American invasive Orconectes limosus also responded as strongly to P. clarkii odor as to conspecific odor. The native Italian species A. pallipes responded more strongly to conspecific alarm than to heterospecific alarm from P. clarkii. The pattern of invasive species of crayfish using a broader range of danger signals than displaced native species appears to be robust.  相似文献
5.
Laboratory and field investigations revealed that the life history traits of exephippial and parthenogenetic generations of Daphnia differ substantially. Daphniids hatching from resting eggs grow faster and their definitive body sizes are bigger than of hatchlings from subitaneous eggs. Size at maturity for exephippial animals is significantly larger. In spite of this, they mature a few days earlier than parthenogenetic females. In this study, the difference was 3–4 days for the laboratory experiments and 1–3 days for the field. Fecundity of the exephippial generation is markedly higher. Here, the clutch size for this generation was up to 3.5–4.0 times as large as for the parthenogenetic generation. Moreover, obtained results suggest that the relationship between clutch size and body length for both generations differ significantly.Estimates of the intrinsic rate of increase for field Daphnia populations demonstrated that life history traits of exephippial animals lead to a two or threefold higher rate of increase in the conditions of invertebrate predation pressure. Under moderate fish pressure, obtained r values for the daphniids hatching from resting eggs were larger than those from subitaneous. High growth rate of exephippial females is disadvantageous only under the conditions of severe pressure by fish. Obtained results suggest that hatchlings from diapausing eggs an acceleration of population increase by several times during the beginning of the development of a population with periodical re-establishment from resting eggs.  相似文献
6.
Torpid common dormice (Muscardinus avellanarius) were found in nestboxes during all the activity period from early April until late October. Prevalence of torpor among dormice was highest in spring, decreased considerably in summer and increased again in October. The proportion of adult dormice that were torpid was inversely related to mean monthly air temperature, except in September, when dormice prepare for hibernation by accumulating fat reserves. In spring and summer, torpid dormice were found when ambient temperature was up to 14–15 °C and in the arousal phase of torpor – up to 19–20 °C. In autumn, dormice were active at much lower ambient temperatures compared to spring and summer, and only dormice that were fat enough and ready for hibernation were torpid. Torpor bouts usually lasted only until noon, but also in the afternoon during persistently low ambient temperatures in April and October. In April–July, torpor was more frequent among adult males than females (75% vs. 46%), and pregnant females were never found in deep torpor. Prevalence of torpor among young-of-the-year was lower compared to adult dormice at the same time. In October, the average weight of torpid young-of-the-year dormice was significantly higher compared to the weight of active dormice (22.3 vs. 17.5 g).

Zusammenfassung

Tagestorpor bei frei lebenden Haselmäusen (Muscardinus avellanarius) in LitauenHaselmäuse (Muscardinus avellanarius) im Torpor wurden während der gesamten aktiven Saison zwischen zeitigem April und Ende Oktober in Nistkästen gefunden. Im Frühjahr war die Torporfrequenz am höchsten, während des Sommers ging sie beträchtlich zurück, und im Oktober stieg sie wieder deutlich. Der Anteil an Haselmäusen im Torpor war umgekehrt abhängig von der mittleren Monatslufttemperatur, mit Ausnahme des Septembers, wo sich die Haselmäuse Fettreserven in Vorbereitung des Winterschlafes anlegen. Während des Frühlings und des Sommers konnten Haselmäuse im Torpor gefunden werden, wenn die Umgebungstemperatur bis 14–15 °C war, und in der Aufwachphase bei Temperaturen bis 19–20 °C. Im Herbst waren die Haselmäuse bei viel tieferen Temperaturen als im Sommer oder Frühjahr aktiv und nur die Haselmäuse die fett genug waren, um in den Winterschlaf gehen zu können, waren lethargisch. Die Torporphasen dauerten in der Regel nur bis zum Mittag, aber im April und Oktober während lang anhaltenden tiefen Umgebungstemperaturen auch bis in den Nachmittag hinein. Zwischen April und Juli konnten mehr adulte Männchen als Weibchen im Torpor nachgewiesen werden (75% vs 46%). Tragende Weibchen waren niemals im tiefen Torpor zu finden. Die Torporfrequenz war bei Haselmäusen in ihrem ersten Lebensjahr geringer als bei adulten im selben Zeitraum. Im Oktober war bei den lethargischen Jungtieren des Jahres das Durchschnittsgewicht höher als bei den aktiven Haselmäusen (22.3 vs. 17.5 g).  相似文献
7.
Females of the leaf miner moth Phyllonorycter acerifoliella (Z.) [=Ph. sylvella (Hw.)] and Ph. heegerella (Z.) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae: Lithocolletinae) release their sex pheromone at the beginning of photophase. The periodicity of the `calling' behaviour of Ph. acerifoliella females was established. Three compounds from calling virgin Ph. heegerella females were collected by the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) technique and identified as (Z)-8-tetradecenyl acetate (Z8-14:OAc), tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc) and (Z)-8-tetradecenol (Z8-14:OH) in the ratio (88±3):(2±0.6):(10±5) by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Field trapping experiments demonstrated that the first two compounds are important for the attraction of conspecific males. Z8-14:OAc was found to be attractive when tested separately, while 14:OAc acted as synergist. The attractivity of the three component blend was reduced by 10% admixture of either (E)-10-dodecenyl acetate (E10-12:OAc) or (Z)-10-tetradecenyl acetate (Z10-14:OAc).Field tests of Z10-, Z8- and E10-14:OAc, identified from Ph. acerifoliella females, demonstrated that the first two compounds were essential for the attraction of conspecific males; so both are sex pheromone components. The attractivity of the three component blend of Z10- Z8- and E10-14:OAc was reduced by 10% admixture of (E)-10-dodecenol (E10-12:OH). The following four semiochemical compounds, Z8-14:OAc, Z8-14:OH, E10-14:OAc and 14:OAc, identified from phyllonoryctid females, as well as two sex attraction antagonists for Ph. acerifoliella and Ph. heegerella males, E10-12:OAc and Z10-14:OAc, are new for the family Gracillariidae. The results of field trapping experiments revealed mechanisms ensuring the specificity of the chemocommunication systems in Ph. acerifoliella, Ph. heegerella and Ph. ulmifoliella (Hb.) moths.  相似文献
8.
Two populations of Sphaerium corneum were sampled from River Vilnelė and small pond in Vilnius, Lithuania. The chromosomes were studied using conventional Giemsa staining and karyometric analysis. Inter- and intra-individual variation in the diploid chromosome numbers was revealed and two different sources of chromosome variability were identified: B chromosomes and the structural changes of chromosomes of the basic (A) set. The chromosome set of the more common karyotypic form, 2 n  = 30, found in both populations, consists of all biarmed metacentric and meta-submetacentric chromosomes of gradually decreasing size. Small, biarmed, mitotically unstable B chromosomes were found in the cells of this karyotypic form. Specimens with 2 n  = 36 were found only in pond. No B chromosomes were detected in their cells. The karyotype is characterized by presence of two pairs of medium telocentrics and four pairs of small subtelocentrics. The remaining chromosomes are biarmed. Robertsonian fusions appear to be involved in formation of two karyotypic forms of S. corneum . DNA sequence analyses showed that ITS1 is identical in both karyotypic forms. On the other hand, differences in 16S sequence were revealed and two haplotypes, corresponding to two karyotypic forms, were identified. The present study opens new perspectives in establishing species-specific characters for confident identification of Sphaerium species and provides insights to the genetic intraspecific variability and possible mechanisms of speciation.  © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2006, 89 , 53–64.  相似文献
9.
Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of crude sex pheromone gland extracts revealed that virgin Synanthedon tipuliformis (Clerck), currant borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) females, produced 6 compounds, structurally related to sex pheromone components of clearwing moths. By comparison of retention times and mass spectra of natural products with corresponding properties of synthetic standards, these compounds were identified as: (2E,13Z)-octadeca-2,13-dien-1-yl acetate (E2,Z13-18:OAc), (3E,13Z)-octadeca-3,13-dien-1-yl acetate (E3,Z13-18:OAc), (13Z)-octadec-13-en-1-yl acetate (Z13-18:OAc), (2E,13Z)-octadeca-2,13-dien-1-ol (E2,Z13-18:OH), (13Z)-octadec-13-en-1-ol (Z13-18:OH) and octadecan-1-ol (18:OH) in the ratio 100:0.7:2.7:3.2:traces:traces. The first 3 compounds were previously known to occur in the sex pheromone gland extracts of currant borers, while the last 3 chemicals are now reported for the first time. Trapping tests carried out in the black currant field revealed that E2,Z13-18:OAc, when tested separately, attracted S. tipuliformis males, while addition of E3,Z13-18:OAc to the main component increased the effectiveness of E2,Z13-18:OAc over seven times. The attractiveness of 6 component lures did not differ significantly from the one of the binary mixture, confirming that E2,Z13-18:OAc and E3,Z13-18:OAc in the ratio100:0.7 are essential sex pheromone components of S. tipuliformis. Trapping tests carried out at the dwelling place of Synanthedon scoliaeformis (Borkhausen) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that, in addition to intraspecific synergistic effect, E3,Z13-18:OAc increased the specificity of the pheromone signal of S. tipuliformis, acting by intraspecific mode as an attraction antagonist against S. scoliaeformis males. By this way, it ensured the specificity of the sex attraction signal of the currant borer. Consequently, both compounds E2,Z13-18:OAc and E3,Z13-18:OAc have to be present in pheromone formulations used for monitoring and/or control of S. tipuliformis to avoid effecting non-target species. Other compounds identified from the sex pheromone gland of S. tipuliformis did not show any significant interspecific activity for males of S. scoliaeformis, however, they provide a basis to achieve specificity of a pheromone signal of S. tipuliformis and could act as attraction antagonists against other clearwing moth species which, like S. tipuliformis, employ E2,Z13-18:OAc as their sex pheromone component.  相似文献
10.
Sex attractants were established for one Brachodidae, three Choreutidae and two Tineidae moth species during field screening tests with (2E,13Z)-octadecadien-1-al, (2E,13Z)-, (3E,13Z)-, (3Z,13Z)-octadecadien-1-ols and their acetates (2E,13Z-18:Ald, 2E,13Z-, 3E,13Z-, 3Z,13Z-18:OH/OAc) as well as of binary mixtures of these compounds in West-Kazakhstan and Lithuania. Males of Brachodes appendiculata were attracted by 3E,13Z-18:OAc, Prochoreutis ultimana and P. myllerana by 2E,13Z-18:OH, Monopis palidella by 2E,13Z-18:Ald and Triaxomera fulvimitrella by binary mixtures of 3Z,13Z-18:OAc with either 3E,13Z-18:OH in the ratio of 5:5 or 3Z,13Z-18:OH in the ratio of 9:1 (v/v). The 3-component mixture composed of 2E,13Z-18:OH, 3Z,13Z-18:OH and 2E,13Z-18:Ald in the ratio 1:1:1 was developed to attract Prochoreutis sehestediana males. Attraction antagonists for B. appendiculata, P. ultimana and M. palidella were shown.  相似文献
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