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1.
A global survey of carbon isotope discrimination in plants from high altitude   总被引:50,自引:0,他引:50  
Summary Carbon 13/12 isotope ratios have been determined from leaves of a hundred C3 plant species (or ecotypes) from all major mountain ranges of the globe, avoiding drought stressed areas. A general increase in 13C content was found with increasing altitude, i.e. overall discrimination against the heavy isotope is reduced at high elevation. The steepest decline of discrimination is observed in taxa typically ranging to highest elevations (e.g. the genus Ranunculus). Mean 13C for all samples collected between 2500 and 5600 m altitude is-26.15 compared to the lowland average of-28.80 (P<0.001). Forbs from highest elevations reach-24. According to theory of 13C discrimination this indicates decreasing relative limitation of carbon uptake by carboxylation. In other words, we estimate that the ratio of internal to external partial pressure of CO2 (p i /p a )in leaves of high elevation plants is lower than in leaves of low altitude. These results confirm recent gas exchange analyses in high and low elevation plants.  相似文献
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 High concentrations of heavy metals in soil have an adverse effect on micro-organisms and microbial processes. Among soil microorganisms, mycorrhizal fungi are the only ones providing a direct link between soil and roots, and can therefore be of great importance in heavy metal availability and toxicity to plants. This review discusses various aspects of the interactions between heavy metals and mycorrhizal fungi, including the effects of heavy metals on the occurrence of mycorrhizal fungi, heavy metal tolerance in these micro-organisms, and their effect on metal uptake and transfer to plants. Mechanisms involved in metal tolerance, uptake and accumulation by mycorrhizal hyphae and by endo- or ectomycorrhizae are covered. The possible use of mycorrhizal fungi as bioremediation agents in polluted soils or as bioindicators of pollution is also discussed. Accepted: 23 June 1997  相似文献
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Long-term measurements of the diurnal pattern of oxygen consumption were conducted in fasting juvenile perch at 15 and at 20° C. In addition, dry body mass, protein and glycogen concentrations and the activity of two key enzymes of energy metabolism, phosphofructokinase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase, were monitored during the period of food deprivation. The average rate of oxygen consumption decreased during the starvation period, but the regular diurnal pattern of low rates in the dark and high rates in the light was upset by a break around days 7 to 8 at both temperatures. This break coincided with the exhaustion of the glycogen reserves in the muscles and in the liver, indicating that switching to a new energetic fuel was accompanied by a change in the pattern of swimming activity. Choice of the major energy source after exhaustion of the carbohydrate store was substantially influenced by water temperature. A negative correlation was found between the scope for spontaneous activity and the specific rate of oxygen consumption in the dark phase suggesting that the resting rate of metabolism responded more strongly to food deprivation than the rate of spontaneous activity in the light phase.  相似文献
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High-conductance calcium-activated potassium (maxi-K) channels comprise a specialized family of K+ channels. They are unique in their dual requirement for depolarization and Ca2+ binding for transition to the open, or conducting, state. Ion conduction through maxi-K channels is blocked by a family of venom-derived peptides, such as charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin. These peptides have been used to study function and structure of maxi-K channels, to identify novel channel modulators, and to follow the purification of functional maxi-K channels from smooth muscle. The channel consists of two dissimilar subunits, and . The subunit is a member of theslo Ca2+-activated K+ channel gene family and forms the ion conduction pore. The subunit is a structurally unique, membrane-spanning protein that contributes to channel gating and pharmacology. Potent, selective maxi-K channel effectors (both agonists and blockers) of low molecular weight have been identified from natural product sources. These agents, together with peptidyl inhibitors and site-directed antibodies raised against and subunit sequences, can be used to anatomically map maxi-K channel expression, and to study the physiologic role of maxi-K channels in various tissues. One goal of such investigations is to determine whether maxi-K channels represent novel therapeutic targets.  相似文献
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Many methods for using diatoms for routine monitoring of water quality have been developed in Europe and, in some countries, these are being used to enforce environmental legislation. In order to facilitate their wider use, particularly with respect to European Union legislation, steps are being taken to harmonize methodology. In this paper, the principles and practice of sampling are described in relation to the main habitat types encountered in Europe. Although details of methods and sampling programmes have to be tailored to particular circumstances and the overall objectives of the monitoring, a number of generalizations can be made. Where available, rocks and other hard surfaces are the preferred substrates and methods for sampling these are described. If such substrata are not available, then introduced ('artificial') substrata have many applications. Various types of introduced substrata can be used successfully, so long as some basic precautions are described. Other types of substrata such as macrophytes and macroalgae may also be useful under certain circumstances, although there is less consensus in the literature on the most appropriate methods, and of the validity of comparisons between indices computed from epiphytic and epilithic communities. When designing surveys, it is recommended that as far as possible, extremes of non-water quality factors (e.g. shade, current speed, etc) are avoided, unless these are characteristic of the system under investigation. Detailed guidelines for sampling epilithon are described. Along with the recommendations for sampling other substrata, it is hoped that these provide a framework that can be adapted to most river types in Europe. This revised version was published online in June 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
8.
Histone acetylation: facts and questions   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
P. Loidl 《Chromosoma》1994,103(7):441-449
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OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prognostic importance of DNA ploidy pattern on gastrointestinal (GI) B-cell lymphoma using image cytometry (ICM) and to compare the results with previously published flow cytometry (FCM) data. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-three cases of surgically resected primary GI B-cell lymphomas were examined. Thirty-eight tumors were located in the stomach, 2 in the small intestine, 1 in the large bowel and 2 in both the stomach and small intestine. Six cases were at stage E I 1, 15 at stage E I 2, 20 at stage E II 1 and 1 each at stages III and IV. Histologically, the lymphomas were classified as GI low grade marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type (low grade, 12 cases), low grade MALT lymphoma with a high grade component (mixed type, 10 cases) and GI diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBC) (high grade MALT lymphoma, 21 cases). After gross removal of nonneoplastic tissue, single cell suspensions were prepared from paraffin blocks and stained according to Feulgen. Ploidy analysis was done using a custom-made DNA cytometer and Optimas image analysis software (Optimas Corp., Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.). RESULTS: Aneuploidy was found in 42% (5/12 cases) of low grade MALT lymphoma, 90% (9/10 cases) of mixed type lymphoma and 100% (21/21 cases) of GI DLBCL. DNA ploidy had no significant impact on overall survival time (P = .73). CONCLUSION: ICM analysis showed a higher proportion of aneuploidy in GI lymphomas as compared to that in prior studies using FCM for ploidy determination. Whether DNA ploidy is an independent prognostic factor remains to be determined.  相似文献
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