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Summary The making and sealing of a tight junction (TJ) requires cell-cell contacts and Ca2–, and can be gauged through the development of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and the accumulation of ZO-1 peptide at the cell borders. We observe that pertussis toxin increases TER, while AIF3 and carbamil choline (carbachol) inhibit it, and 5-guanylylimidodiphosphate (GTPs) blocks the development of a cell border pattern of ZO-1, suggesting that G-proteins are involved. Phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) probably participate in these processes since (i) activation of PLC by thyrotropin-1 releasing hormone increases TER, and its inhibition by neomycin blocks the development of this resistance; (ii) 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, an activator of PKC, stimulates TER development, while polymyxin B and 1-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methyl-piperazine dihydrochloride (H7), which inhibit this enzyme, abolish TER. Addition of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine, dB-cAMP or forskolin do not enhance the value of TER, but have just the opposite effect. Trifluoperazine and calmidazoline inhibit TER development, suggesting that calmodulin (CaM) also plays a role in junction formation. These results indicate that junction formation may be controlled by a network of reactions where G-proteins, phospholipase C, adenylate cyclase, protein kinase C and CaM are involved.  相似文献
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Are metals dietary carcinogens?   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
Humans have been in contact with metals almost since the beginning of our existence. In fact, one cannot even think on human evolution without considering the great role played by metals in mankind's development. Metals are common moieties of molecules involved in a wide variety of biological processes, and hence are found in virtually all living organisms. Some metals are essential for human nutrition; others are found as contaminants in foodstuffs. One feature of the normal human diet which is frequently found is the simultaneous presence of both essential and toxic metals. Other factors important in the risk-evaluation analysis of metals are their pharmacokinetics, interactions among them and with other major components of the diet, and, especially, the great differences in the dietary habits of different populations and in the regional distribution of metals. In attempting to understand the role which dietary metals could play in human carcinogenesis, we found that the many factors involved and the lack of specific information made it difficult to reach firm conclusions on the hazards of dietary metals. We hope that this paper will raise the interest of genetic toxicologists in the subject and will consequently facilitate a risk analysis of the carcinogenic potential of dietary metals.  相似文献
4.
Seed bank versus seed rain in the regeneration of a tropical pioneer tree   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
Summary We used the tropical pioneer tree, Cecropia obtusifolia to evaluate the relative importance of different sources of seeds in the regeneration of species that depend on ephemeral sites. We studied seed production in a population established in a 5 ha plot, and dispersal, dormancy and seed predation in two recent treefall gaps (<1 year-old), two building or successional forest patches (10–15 since disturbed), and two mature forest patches (>35 years since disturbed) for a one year period at Los Tuxtlas (Mexico). Flowers and fruits were counted at monthly intervals. Annual fecundity per tree ranged from 1.4×104 to 1.4×107 seeds. Seeds were continuously available on the trees and on the ground. Average annual seed rain per m2 (as measured by 0.5×0.5 m seed traps) varied from 184 to 1925 among the six sites. Distance to nearest seed source and patch type explained more than 60% of the seed rain variation among sites. Soil seed density, estimated by counting seeds from ten samples (78.5 cm2×10 cm deep) collected from each site in October and January, ranged among the six sites from 269 to 4485 seeds per m2 in January and from 204 to 5073 in October. Soil seed viabilities were much lower (17.1% in October and 5.1% in January) than those of rain seeds (48.26%). Annual survivorships of 2.2% were estimated for seeds artificially sown on the soil surface of a gap and a mature patch, and 3.75% in a building patch. In two other experiments seed removal rates ranged from 27% to 98% in 4 days. Removal rates were significantly higher in gap and mature patches than in building patches. Ants (Paratrechina vividula) and grasshopper nymphs (Hygronemobius. sp.) were the main predators. We draw three main conclusions from our data: (1) Pathogens and predators determine low survivorship of C. obtusifolia's seeds in the soil and a rapid turnover rate (1.07 to 1.02 years) of its seed bank; (2) a continuous and copious seed production and an abundant and extensive seed rain replenish the soil seed pool in patches with different disturbance ages at least up to 86 m from nearest source; (3) more than 90% of the seeds contributing to C. obtusifolia seedling recruitment in gaps are less than one year-old. We discuss our results in the context of previous similar studies for tropical forests.  相似文献
5.
Expression of functional interleukin-12 from mouse in transgenic tomato plants   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Transgenic plants have been employed successfully as a low-cost system for the production of therapeutically valuable proteins, including antibodies, antigens and hormones. Here, we report the expression of a cytokine with immunomodulatory function, mouse interleukin-12 (IL-12), in transgenic tomato plants. Single-chain mouse IL-12 driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, accumulates to high levels in leaves and fruits (up to 7.3 and 3.4 μg per gram of fresh weight, respectively). Mouse IL-12 expressed in tomato displays biological activity in vitro, as determined by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion by T cells. Possible uses of this plant-based cytokine involving mucosal delivery are discussed  相似文献
6.
Temporal evolution of a decision-making process in medial premotor cortex   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Hernández A  Zainos A  Romo R 《Neuron》2002,33(6):959-972
The events linking sensory discrimination to motor action remain unclear. It is not known, for example, whether the motor areas of the frontal lobe receive the result of the discrimination process from other areas or whether they actively participate in it. To investigate this, we trained monkeys to discriminate between two mechanical vibrations applied sequentially to the fingertips; here subjects had to recall the first vibration, compare it to the second one, and indicate with a hand/arm movement which of the two vibrations had the higher frequency. We recorded the activity of single neurons in medial premotor cortex (MPC) and found that their responses correlate with the diverse stages of the discrimination process. Thus, activity in MPC reflects the temporal evolution of the decision-making process leading to action selection during this perceptual task.  相似文献
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Phosphorus cycling in a Mexican tropical dry forest ecosystem   总被引:10,自引:4,他引:6  
The study was conducted in five contiguous small watersheds (12–28 ha) gauged for long-term ecosystem research. Five 80 × 30 m plots were used for the study. We quantified inputs from the atmosphere, dissolved and particulate-bound losses, throughfall and litterfall fluxes, standing crop litter and soil available P pools. Mean P input and output for a six-year period was 0.16 and 0.06 kgha–1yr–1, respectively. Phosphorus concentration increased as rainfall moved through the canopy. Annual P returns in litterfall (3.88 kg/ha) represented more than 90% of the total aboveground nutrient return to the forest floor. Phosphorus concentration in standing litter (0.08%) was lower than that in litterfall (0.11%). Phosphorus content in the litterfall was higher at Chamela than at other tropical dry forests. Mean residence time on the forest floor was 1.2 yr for P and 1.3 yr for organic matter. Together these results suggest that the forest at Chamela may not be limited by P availability and suggest a balance between P immobilization and uptake. Comparison of P losses in stream water with input rates from the atmosphere for the six-year period showed that inputs were higher than outputs. Balances calculated for a wet and a dry year indicated a small P accumulation in both years.  相似文献
9.
Seed size and establishment conditions in tropical trees   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
C. K. Kelly  A. Purvis 《Oecologia》1993,94(3):356-360
Within a multi-species study, species do not necessarily represent independent data points. The data set used by Foster and Janson (1985) to look at the relationship between seed size and establishment conditions for naturally occurring tropical trees was re-analyzed, to take into account the effect of relatedness among species. The re-analysis showed that 1) this data set does not support the hypothesis that large-seeded species are more likely to establish in small gaps or shade than are small-seeded species, and 2) more than 1/3 (16 of 39) of the data points were extraneous to the test of the hypothesis. It is recommended that all ecologists, and not just those interested in evolutionary questions, consider species relatedness prior to inception of any multi-species study.  相似文献
10.
Here, we have studied how Sox genes and BMP signaling are functionally coupled during limb chondrogenesis. Using the experimental model of TGFbeta1-induced interdigital digits, we dissect the sequence of morphological and molecular events during in vivo chondrogenesis. Our results show that Sox8 and Sox9 are the most precocious markers of limb cartilage, and their induction is independent and precedes the activation of BMP signaling. Sox10 appears also to cooperate with Sox9 and Sox8 in the establishment of the digit cartilages. In addition, we show that experimental induction of Sox gene expression in the interdigital mesoderm is accompanied by loss of the apoptotic response to exogenous BMPs. L-Sox5 and Sox6 are respectively induced coincident and after the expression of Bmpr1b in the prechondrogenic aggregate, and their activation correlates with the induction of Type II Collagen and Aggrecan genes in the differentiating cartilages. The expression of Bmpr1b precedes the appearance of morphological changes in the prechondrogenic aggregate and establishes a landmark from which the maintenance of the expression of all Sox genes and the progress of cartilage differentiation becomes dependent on BMPs. Moreover, we show that Ventroptin precedes Noggin in the modulation of BMP activity in the developing cartilages. In summary, our findings suggest that Sox8, Sox9, and Sox10 have a cooperative function conferring chondrogenic competence to limb mesoderm in response to BMP signals. In turn, BMPs in concert with Sox9, Sox6, and L-Sox5 would be responsible for the execution and maintenance of the cartilage differentiation program.  相似文献
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