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In the Czech part of the Labe River and the lower part of the Vltava River, we examined if the benthic macroinvertebrate composition changed from 1996 to 2005 due to expected improvements in water quality resulting from socioeconomic changes in the Czech Republic since the 1990s. Special attention was given to rare and alien species. The four biological metrics used (Number of taxa, BMWP, Number of sensitive taxa, and Number of EPT taxa) demonstrated that there was indeed an improvement in water quality as well as a slight improvement of the Labe microhabitats during the investigated period. An increasing Number of taxa over time was observed at most sites. Two main concurrent ecological processes are recently in progress in the Labe: a recovery of native species and an expansion of alien species, some of which are considered invasive. The caddisfly Setodes punctatus and the beetle Pomatinus substriatus, considered as regionally extinct in the Czech Republic until 2005, were rediscovered during our investigations. Findings of the crustacean Hemimysis anomala (invasive) and the chironomids Stenochironomus sp. and Lipiniella sp. were the first records of these taxa in the Czech Republic.  相似文献
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Niche conservatism providing support for using ecological niche modeling in biological invasions has been widely noticed, however, the equilibrium state and geographic background effect on niche model transferability has received scant attention. The western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis, native to western North America, has expanded its range eastward and has become an invasive pest in Europe and Asia. Niche models calibrated on the ranges of a small native population and two large expanding populations were compared. We found that the climate niche of L. occidentalis is conserved during its steady expansion in North America and rapid spread in Europe. Models based on the small western native range successfully captured the eastern expanding and introduced European populations, whereas the large area-based models varied with the presumed state of equilibrium. The equilibrium state based model succeeded but the non-equilibrium based model failed to predict the range in Europe. Our study estimates global invasion risk zones for L. occidentalis and suggests that, based on niche conservatism, modeling based on a reasonable geographic distribution at a climatic equilibrium of a species could guarantee the transferability of niche model prediction. Caution is warranted in interpreting low niche model transferability with niche differentiation and forwarding message for management strategy.  相似文献
3.
Central Europe faces an influx of terrestrial invertebrates from more southerly regions, in particular from the Mediterranean. This process is particularly noticeable among terrestrial gastropods. In the last 30 years, the number of non-native land snail species found outdoors in the Czech Republic increased from 5 to 15 (8% of all species); more than half of these have presumed Mediterranean origin. The trend has accelerated recently; seven new alien species (six Mediterranean) have been recorded since 2000. As the most recent example, we report the finding of a large helicid species from the South-East Mediterranean, Helix lucorum. A well-established overwintering population was found in Prague, over 400 km from the nearest known localities of the species. This trend of newly established snails corresponds with increases in average temperatures as well as the intensity of foreign trade in the past six decades, suggesting a synergistic effect of both climatic conditions and socioeconomic factors.  相似文献
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Members of the family Scutelleridae (Heteroptera: Pentatomomorpha: Pentatomoidea) are also called shield bugs because of the greatly enlarged scutellum, or jewel bugs because of the brilliant colours of many species. All scutellerids are phytophagous, feeding on various parts of their host plants. Due to lack of obvious synapomorphies and the failure to apply rigorous phylogenetic methods, the higher classification of Scutelleridae has been disputed for more than 150 years. Here we reconstructed a phylogeny of Scutelleridae based on complete sequences of 18S and 28S nuclear rDNAs and all 13 protein‐coding genes of the mitochondrial genome, with the sampled taxa covering all of the currently recognized subfamilies. The monophyly of Scutelleridae was confirmed by the congruence of the results of analyses conducted using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony. The phylogenetic relationships among subfamilies were well resolved for the first time. Furthermore, time‐divergence studies estimated that the time of origin of Scutelleridae was in the Early Cretaceous (142.1–122.8 Ma), after the origin of the angiosperms. The diversification between the extant subfamilies of Scutelleridae and within the subfamilies occurred from the late Palaeocene to the late Miocene, simultaneously with the rise of the major groups of angiosperms and other phytophagous insects.  相似文献
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