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Fire is extensively used in agricultural management in Mexico. There is little information on the effects of those practices on the abundance and diversity of animals that live within these forest soils. We studied the effect of slashing, burning and land use in a tropical deciduous forest on ant communities in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. The original vegetation (tropical deciduous forest) was modified into a corn field. Sampling was carried out in five stages: before slashing, after slashing, after burning, after seeding and after harvest. We found that very severe fires greatly reduced ant diversity. The most important effect of fire was the reduction of ant density, and the change of species composition and trophic guilds. These changes are relevant in the recycling process of energy in the ecosystem.  相似文献
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Spider diversity is partitioned into three primary clades, namely Mesothelae, Mygalomorphae, and Araneomorphae. Mygalomorph cytogenetics is largely unknown. Our study revealed a remarkable karyotype diversity of mygalomorphs. Unlike araneomorphs, they show no general trend towards a decrease of 2n, as the chromosome number was reduced in some lineages and increased in others. A biarmed karyotype is a symplesiomorphy of mygalomorphs and araneomorphs. Male meiosis of some mygalomorphs is achiasmatic, or includes the diffuse stage. The sex chromosome system X1X20, which is supposedly ancestral in spiders, is uncommon in mygalomorphs. Many mygalomorphs exhibit more than two (and up to 13) X chromosomes in males. The evolution of X chromosomes proceeded via the duplication of chromosomes, fissions, X–X, and X‐autosome fusions. Spiders also exhibit a homomorphic sex chromosome pair. In the germline of mygalomorph males these chromosomes are often deactivated; their deactivation and pairing is initiated already at spermatogonia. Remarkably, pairing of sex chromosomes in mygalomorph females is also initiated at gonial cells. Some mygalomorphs have two sex chromosome pairs. The second pair presumably arose in early‐diverging mygalomorphs, probably via genome duplication. The unique behaviour of spider sex chromosomes in the germline may promote meiotic pairing of homologous sex chromosomes and structural differentiation of their duplicates, as well as the establishment of polyploid genomes. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013, 109 , 377–408.  相似文献
3.
In order to assess the phylogenetic structure of the springtail genus Palmanura, as well as to test the monophyly of the tribe Sensillanurini (Neanuridae: Neanurinae), a data matrix of morphological (chaetotactic and other) characters of members of this group was assembled and analysed in the light of Wagner parsimony. The data matrix included all the known members of the Neotropical genus Palmanura, plus representatives of Sensillanura and Americanura. Although not all the clades obtained were highly supported by bootstrap resampling, some structures were relatively constant under different approaches. Alternative analyses (unordered and ordered character states, rescaled weighting procedure) were applied. While alternative solutions were obtained, a number of structures were shared by the results irrespective of the method used. On this basis, the results suggest that some further reassessment is required to confirm formally the monophyly of the tribe Sensillanurini. The genera Palmanura and Americanura are mutually poly/paraphyletic; we thus suggest that Palmanura should be considered as a synonym of Americanura, although some character reassessment and more varied outgroup species may be necessary before a formal generic redefinition can be proposed. Finally, a comparison of the performance of the characters under Wagner parsimony analysis indicated that differences in the characters’ retention indexes are due not to the topological (tagmal) position of the traits involved, but to character coding: the characters describing quantitative features (generally numbers of setae) generally performed worse than other types of characters under parsimony. An updated list of the known members of the Sensillanurini (Collembola: Neanuridae: Neanurinae) is presented.
© The Willi Hennig Society 2009.  相似文献
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