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The aims of this study were (1) to measure the secretion of prostaglandin F (PGF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) by endometrial cells collected by a cytobrush from healthy cows and cows with subclinical and clinical endometritis in the fourth week postpartum, and (2) to evaluate the relationship between the mediators' levels of secretion and the number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the uterine smears of cows with subclinical endometritis. The study included cows without any signs of clinical endometritis (n = 63) and cows with clinical endometritis as a positive control (ENDOM, n = 12). Two different threshold ratios (>5% and >18% of PMNs) were used to categorize the cows without clinical signs as with or without cytologic endometritis (CE). Considering the first or second threshold, the animals with CE were included in group CE POS I or CE POS II, whereas the healthy cows were assigned to group CE NEG I or CE NEG II, respectively.  相似文献
2.
Biological invasions are increasingly recognized as a potent force altering native ecosystems worldwide. Many of the best documented cases involve the massive invasions of North America by plant and animal taxa native to Europe. In this study, we use DNA barcoding to survey the occurrence and genetic structure of two major groups of soil invertebrates in both their native and introduced ranges: Collembola and earthworms. Populations of ten species of earthworms and five species of Collembola were barcoded from both continents. Most of these species exhibited a similar genetic structure of large and stable populations in North America and Europe, a result supporting a scenario of multiple invasions. This was expected for earthworm species involved in human economic activities, but not foreseen for Collembola species de facto unintentionally introduced. This study also establishes that invasive species surveys employing DNA barcoding gain additional resolution over those based on morphology as they allow evaluation of cryptic lineages exhibiting different invasion histories.  相似文献
3.
Although their functional importance in ecosystems is increasingly recognized, soil‐dwelling micro‐arthropods are usually poorly known in comparison with their above‐ground counterparts. Collembola constitute a significant and species‐rich component of the soil biodiversity, but it remains a woefully understudied group because of the taxonomic impediment. The ever‐increasing use of molecular taxonomic tools, such as DNA barcoding, provides a possible solution. Here, we test the use of this approach through a diversity survey of Collembola from the vicinity of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, and compare the results with previous surveys in the same area and in other sub‐Arctic regions. The systematic barcoding campaign at Churchill revealed a diverse collembolan fauna consisting of 97 species‐level MOTUs in six types of habitats. If all these MOTUs are confirmed as species, this richness would be far higher than prior records for Arctic Canada and could lead to reconsider the actual diversity of the group in Arctic environments.  相似文献
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