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行为特征可在外来动物建立种群和扩张过程中发挥重要作用,因此,要正确理解动物入侵,常常需要仔细研究其行为机制。20世纪80年代以来,随着动物入侵规模在世界各地的迅速加剧,有关其行为机制的研究也受到了广泛关注。最近一些研究表明,一些入侵动物种内攻击和觅食等行为具有可塑性,因此它们能够灵活应对多变的环境条件,这对于种群的建立和维持至关重要;入侵动物与土著物种发生行为互作时,往往占据优势,从而取代土著物种,并有助于其地域扩张;入侵动物长距离扩散可以提高其地域扩张速度,许多行为可与扩散行为结合进一步促进扩张。今后需要加强对入侵动物的行为分析,使之全面地融合到生物入侵的研究之中。这不仅可以提高对外来物种入侵的预警和治理能力,而且为探索动物行为的奥秘以及动物间行为互作在物种进化中的意义提供了独特的机会。  相似文献
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Various insects require intracellular bacteria that are restricted to specialized cells (bacteriocytes) and are transmitted vertically via the female ovary, but the transmission mechanisms are obscure. We hypothesized that, in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, where intact bacteriocytes (and not isolated bacteria) are transferred to oocytes, the transmission mechanism would be evident as cellular and molecular differences between the nymph (pre-adult) and adult bacteriocytes. We demonstrate dramatic remodelling of bacteriocytes at the developmental transition from nymph to adulthood. This transition involves the loss of cell–cell adhesion, high division rates to constant cell size and onset of cell mobility, enabling the bacteriocytes to crawl to the ovaries. These changes are accompanied by cytoskeleton reorganization and changes in gene expression: genes functioning in cell–cell adhesion display reduced expression and genes involved in cell division, cell motility and endocytosis/exocytosis have elevated expression in adult bacteriocytes, relative to nymph bacteriocytes. This study demonstrates, for the first time, how developmentally orchestrated remodelling of gene expression and correlated changes in cell behaviour underpin the capacity of bacteriocytes to mediate the vertical transmission and persistence of the symbiotic bacteria on which the insect host depends.  相似文献
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Whiteflies possess bacterial symbionts Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidium that are housed in specialized cells called bacteriocytes and are faithfully transmitted via the ovary to insect offspring. In one whitefly species studied previously, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1, transmission is mediated by somatic inheritance of bacteriocytes, with a single bacteriocyte transferred to each oocyte and persisting through embryogenesis to the next generation. Here, we investigate the mode of bacteriocyte transmission in two whitefly species, B. tabaci MED, the sister species of MEAM1, and the phylogenetically distant species Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Microsatellite analysis supported by microscopical studies demonstrates that B. tabaci MED bacteriocytes are genetically different from other somatic cells and persist through embryogenesis, as for MEAM1, but T. vaporariorum bacteriocytes are genetically identical to other somatic cells of the insect, likely mediated by the degradation of maternal bacteriocytes in the embryo. These two alternative modes of transmission provide a first demonstration among insect symbioses that the cellular processes underlying vertical transmission of bacterial symbionts can diversify among related host species associated with a single lineage of symbiotic bacteria.  相似文献
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The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex, and its systematic classification requires controlled crossing experiments among its genetic groups. Accurate information on pre‐copulation intervals, copulation frequencies, and initial frequency of egg fertilization of newly emerged adults is critical for designing procedures for collecting the virgin adults necessary for these experiments. In the literature, considerable variation is reported between B. tabaci populations, with respect to the length of the pre‐copulation interval and the initial frequency of egg fertilization. Here, we used a video‐recording method to observe continuously the copulation behaviour of the Mediterranean/Asia Minor/Africa (B biotype) and the Asia II (ZHJ1 biotype) groups of B. tabaci. We also recorded the initial frequency of egg fertilization, as determined by the sex of the progeny. When adults were caged in female–male pairs on leaves of cotton plants, the earliest copulation events occurred 2–6 h after emergence; at 12 h after emergence 56–84% of the females had copulated at least once, and nearly all (92–100%) had copulated at least once by 36 h after emergence. Both females and males copulated repeatedly. Approximately 80 and 20% of copulation events occurred during the photophase and scotophase, respectively. By 72 h post‐emergence, the females of the B and ZHJ1 biotypes had copulated on average 6.1 and 3.9 times, respectively. When adults were caged in groups on plants 1–13 h after emergence, 30–35% of the eggs deposited during this period were fertilized, and approximately 90% of females were fertilized by the end of the 13 h. Although timing of copulation differed in detail between the two genetic groups, the results demonstrate that B. tabaci adults can start to copulate as early as 2–6 h post‐emergence and the majority of females can become fertilized on the day that they emerge.  相似文献
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